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Social Psychology

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Matthew Mlynarczyk

on 6 December 2012

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Transcript of Social Psychology

Social Psychology The Story of the Sub Field Allport (1920): Social Facilitation

Presence of others can facilitate certain behavior.
Audience increases performance in well learned/easy tasks.
Decreases performance in newly learned/difficult tasks (Social Inhibition). Key Figures In Social Psychology: The End Thank for your Attention The Timeline of Social Psychology 1930's 1940's Social Psychology The scientific study of how people think about, influence and relate to one another. (A field with a long past, but a short History) Great Depression
Frustration and Aggression
Fascism
Authoritarianism World War II
Propaganda
Holocaust
Perceptual Bias 1950's McCarthyism, Cold War
and Desegregation
Conformity
Prejudice
Dissonance Theory
Social Comparison
Theory Behavior in the social world could be modeled.
Bobo doll study.
Children copied behavior of adult who was aggressive towards doll when they saw adult got rewarded for it. Bandura (1963) – Social Learning Theory 1960's Civil Rights movement, Vietnam War, Recreational Drugs
Deindividuation
Obedience
Attribution Theory Festinger (1950) – Cognitive Dissonance 1970's "Me" generation, Rise of feminism, more working women,computers
Social loafing
Fundamental Attribution error
Biased Assimilation when we hold beliefs or attitudes which are different, we experience dissonance-causes discomfort.
We are motivated to reduce this by either changing one of our thoughts, beliefs, or attitudes (Selective exposure hypothesis). Salary Salaries are affected by work setting, specialty, experience, and education qualifications


University faculty: 76,000
Research position: 80,000
Educational administration: 116,5000 Tajfel (1971) – Social Identity Theory

Prejudice towards out group "The Other"
Strong in group preference.
Social Identity Theory: Individuals need to maintain a positive sense of personal and social identity.
Achieved by emphasizing the desirability of one's own group.
Focusing on distinctions between the "Other Group" Wide variety of career opportunities:
Educational Institutions
Corporations
Government
Hospitals Career Information Weiner (1986) – Attribution theory

Interested in attributions made for experiences of success and failure.
We look for explanations of behaviors in the social world.
These explanations are made based on 3 areas:
-Locus (internal or external)
Stability (whether cause is stable or changes over time).
controllability. Milgram (1963) – Shock Experiment
All participants gave shocks to learners.
obedience is most likely to occur in an unfamiliar environment and in the presence of an authority figure,
occurs because the participant felt that someone other than themselves was responsible for their actions. Bachelors Degree:
Probation officer
Market Researcher
Advertising Sales Agent
Public relations Specialist

PhD
Professor
Research (more specified) Educational Requirements Schools That Offer Social Psychology Programs.. Saint Louis University (SLU):
PhD Program

Washington University (WASHU): masters level program


University of Missouri-St. Louis (UMSL)
Masters and PhD level in I/O Haney, Banks, Zimbardo (1973) – Prison Study

showed that conformity to social roles occurred as part of the social interaction, as both groups displayed more negative emotions and hostility and dehumanization became apparent. 1980's 1990's 2000's 1974 The Society of Personality and Social Psychology becomes Division 8 of APA Reaganism and Reaganomics, End of Cold War
Behavioral Economics
Evolution of the cooperation
Decision making Globalization, Internet and Cell Phones
Cultural Psychology
Automatic v. Controlled processing
Conflict Resolution Reality TV, 9/11 and Terrorism, Abu Ghraib, and Economic Meltdown
Terror Management theroy
Affective forcasting
Lucifer Effect What do Social Psychologist do? References Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2006-07 Edition,
Psychologists, on the Internet at http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos056.htm

Fiske, S. T., Lindzey, G., & Gilbert, D. T. (2011). Handbook of social psychology, 2 volume set. (Vol. 1). Hoboken,
NJ: Wiley.

Grajzl, P., & Baniak, A. (2012). Mandating behavioral conformity in social groups with conformist members.
Journal Of Economic Behavior & Organization, 82(2-3), 479-493.

Grusec, E. J., (1994). Social learning theory and developmental psychology: The legacies of Robert R. Sears and
Albert Bandura, American Psychological Association, pp. 473-497.

Kenworthy, B. J., Miller, N., Collins, E. B., Read, J. S., Earleywine, M., (2011). A trans-paradigm theoretical
synthesis of cognitivedissonance theory: Illuminating the nature of discomfort. Psychology Press. pp. 36-113.

Milgram S. (1974). Obedience to authority: An experimental view. New York: Harper & Row.

Myers, D. (2002). Social psychology. (7th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

PBS. (2012). A Class Divided. Retrieved From http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/ divided/

Social psychologist salary information. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.psychologycareercenter.org/social-
psychologist-salary.html.

Tornblom, A. K. (2008). Social Psychology of Justice: Origins, Central issues, Recent Developments, and Future
Directions. Nordic Psychology, 209-234.

Tyler TR. (1997). The psychology of legitimacy: A relational perspective on voluntary deference to authorities.
Personality and Social Psychology Review, 1, 323–345.

YouTube. (2010). Original Milgram Experiment. Retrieved From
<http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8olVHKgIBXc>.

YouTube. (2011). The Stanford Prison Experiment. Retrieved From <http://www.youtube.com/wa
tch?v=sZwfNs1pqG0>. Conformity social influence involving a change in belief or behavior in order to fit in with a group this change is in response to real or imagined pressures from a social group 3 Different Types of Conformity
trying to fit in
scared of not being accepted
publicly accepts a belief, but rejects
belief in private
person lacks knowledge and looks
looks to group for guidance
when uncertain, compares their
behavior with those in the group
accepts views of the group and
adopts them individually Ingratiational Conformity person conforms to impress
or gain favor/acceptance
from other people motivated by the need for social
rewards rather than the threat
of rejection The Total Fairness Model: a suggestive model to illustrate integration between distributive
and Procedural Justice, to generate justified evaluations. Finally………. The theoretical outline for social justice Positive and Negative Outcome Allocations
-The research for these positions has yet to prevail consistent findings

- Some suggest it may be due to the incompatible conceptual usages of negative
and positive outcome distribution. Areas of Current Research Social Dilemma Research-

Two Principal Paradigms:

Resource Dilemma-


Public Good Dilemmas

Game theory-


Kazemi and Eek 2008 research findings- Areas of current interest Justice research in Social Psychology has focused on 6 central questions:

What is justice?
When is Justice Salient?
Why is it important?
How are the judgments formed-?
What cognitive and behavioral reactions result from unfair outcomes/treatments-?
To what extent are justice effects cross culturally valid? Reoccurring Central Issues Distributive- Guided by the equity theory; fairness outcomes are proportional to
Contributions.
Equity, equality, and need


Procedural- concerned with perceived fairness of the decision process through which the
Final outcome is decided.


Interactional (recently added)-refers to the fairness associated with the interpersonal
treatment received during the enactment of decision making There are 3 Types of Justice A lot Social Psychological work is driven by the major issues and concerns of socially crippling phenomena such as racism, altruism, and the AIDS virus.

Some of the most recent research in Social Psychology is concerned with Justice in various societies.


Social psychologist study people’s introspective experiences of justice in the context of resource distribution. Once again The Total Fairness Model: a suggestive model to illustrate integration between distributive
and Procedural Justice, to generate justified evaluations. Finally………. The theoretical outline for social justice Positive and Negative Outcome Allocations
-The research for these positions has yet to prevail consistent findings

- Some suggest it may be due to the incompatible conceptual usages of negative
and positive outcome distribution. Corporate Management Conflict and Justice

The relationship between fairness and interpersonal conflict management
A study conducted by Kazemi in (2007) Areas of Current Research Social Dilemma Research-

Two Principal Paradigms:

Resource Dilemma-


Public Good Dilemmas

Game theory-


Kazemi and Eek 2008 research findings- Areas of current interest Justice research in Social Psychology has focused on 6 central questions:

What is justice?
When is Justice Salient?
Why is it important?
How are the judgments formed-?
What cognitive and behavioral reactions result from unfair outcomes/treatments-?
To what extent are justice effects cross culturally valid? Reoccurring Central Issues Distributive- Guided by the equity theory; fairness outcomes are proportional to
Contributions.
Equity, equality, and need


Procedural- concerned with perceived fairness of the decision process through which the
Final outcome is decided.


Interactional (recently added)-refers to the fairness associated with the interpersonal
treatment received during the enactment of decision making There are 3 Types of Justice A lot Social Psychological work is driven by the major issues and concerns of socially crippling phenomena such as racism, altruism, and the AIDS virus.

Some of the most recent research in Social Psychology is concerned with Justice in various societies.


Social psychologist study people’s introspective experiences of justice in the context of resource distribution. Once again The Total Fairness Model: a suggestive model to illustrate integration between distributive
and Procedural Justice, to generate justified evaluations. Finally………. The theoretical outline for social justice Positive and Negative Outcome Allocations
-The research for these positions has yet to prevail consistent findings

- Some suggest it may be due to the incompatible conceptual usages of negative
and positive outcome distribution. Corporate Management Conflict and Justice

The relationship between fairness and interpersonal conflict management
A study conducted by Kazemi in (2007) Areas of Current Research Social Dilemma Research-

Two Principal Paradigms:

Resource Dilemma-


Public Good Dilemmas

Game theory-


Kazemi and Eek 2008 research findings- Areas of current interest Justice research in Social Psychology has focused on 6 central questions:

What is justice?
When is Justice Salient?
Why is it important?
How are the judgments formed-?
What cognitive and behavioral reactions result from unfair outcomes/treatments-?
To what extent are justice effects cross culturally valid? Reoccurring Central Issues Distributive- Guided by the equity theory; fairness outcomes are proportional to
Contributions.
Equity, equality, and need


Procedural- concerned with perceived fairness of the decision process through which the
Final outcome is decided.


Interactional (recently added)-refers to the fairness associated with the interpersonal
treatment received during the enactment of decision making There are 3 Types of Justice A lot Social Psychological work is driven by the major issues and concerns of socially crippling phenomena such as racism, altruism, and the AIDS virus.

Some of the most recent research in Social Psychology is concerned with Justice in various societies.


Social psychologist study people’s introspective experiences of justice in the context of resource distribution. Once again Can range from 50,000 to 116,500 annually http://www.prisonexp.org/ 1971 – The Stanford Prison Experiment (March 33, 1933 - ) Philip Zimbardo Day One: The Blue Eyed Vs. The Brown Eyed
Day Two: The Brown Eyed Vs. The Blue Eyed http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/divided/ 1968 - The Blue Eyed, Brown Eyed Experiment “I observed a mature and initially poised businessman enter the laboratory smiling and confident. Within 20 minutes, he was reduced to a twitching, stuttering wreck who was rapidly approaching a point of nervous collapse. He constantly pulled on his earlobe and twisted his hands. At one point, he pushed his fist into his forehead and muttered, "Oh, God, let's stop it." And yet, he continued to respond to every word of the experimenter and obeyed to the end.” 1961 - The Obedience to Authority Experiment 1961 – The Obedience to Authority Experiment (August 15, 1933 - December 20, 1984) Stanley Milgram Significant Experiments in Social Psychology 1968 - The Blue Eyed, Brown Eyed Experiment (1933 - ) Jane Elliott 1961 - The Obedience to Authority Experiment http://www.prisonexp.org/ “What happens when you put good people in an evil place? Does humanity win over evil, or does evil triumph?” 1971 – The Stanford Prison Experiment Social Psychology
Education and Careers Examples of Important Topics of Research in Social Psychology Normative Conformity Informational Conformity
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