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PISA & STEM Framework

PISA assessment, recommendations and STEM solution (GeoMatech National Conference Budapest January 2014 ). (Minor update April 1 2014 to include problem solving scores).

tony houghton

on 9 February 2016

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Transcript of PISA & STEM Framework

* 20 multi-disciplinary projects each for UK key stage 2 and 3

* 5+ Projects per year, each 10 curricular + 10 extra-curricular hours

* Challenge, problem solving, cross curricular, expert/parent/industry/community as well as technology specialist and non-technology specialist teacher engagement

* Groups of 4-5 pupils teamworking, working hard, developing people skills and presentation

* Fun...
20-20 STEM Framework
Program for International Student Assessment 2012
The PISA site shows international educational attainment in maths, reading and science (at 15):
views are presented for the top performing countries maths, reading and science respectively
followed by views for United Kingdom and Hungary
So what do PISA recommend we do about this?
Why do Shanghai and Finland perform so well?
High perception of the value of education and teachers
Most observers have come to believe that, if there is a key to the success of the Finnish system, it is the quality of their
teachers and the trust
that the Finnish people have vested in them.

In Shanghai, the
whole family got behind the student
in his effort to succeed on the exams, and the whole family suffered if the student failed. Little wonder that, in this society,
teachers were highly valued
and students were
willing to put in a lot of both time and effort
into their education, and teaching became an occupation with high status in the society.
The Shanghai core curriculum is the same for all students, an enriched curriculum permits students to choose their own electives and an inquiry-based curriculum is implemented mainly in extra-curricular activities. Learn to solve
real-world problems
, on
studies and on the ability to
solve problems of a kind that one has not seen before.

Over time, mathematics, science and technology all took on greater importance in Finnish curricula, as did higher-order thinking skills like
problem-solving, teamwork, creativity and interdisciplinary studies
Problem solving - rich curriculum
We might summarise these as:
Real-world problem solving
High perception of education, Parental engagement
International Student
Assessment PISA Results 2012

CCITE 20-20
STEM Solution Framework

International Best

This pupil is presenting a Zero Cost Energy Bike in Stoke High School, Ipswich UK - intended to provide laptop power in India
This pupil is presenting a Zero Cost Energy Bike in Stoke High School, Ipswich UK - intended to provide laptop power in India
Tony Houghton and Adrian Oldknow
Cambridge Centre for Innovation in Technological Education http://

Visiting Professors BKF University of Applied Science
PISA & STEM Framework
PISA & STEM Framework
From the Centre on International Educational Benchmarking site:
- PISA international assessment, recommendations and STEM solution
GeoMatech National Conference Budapest January 2014
- international assessment, recommendations and solution
Subjective Comments
For the UK we may observe that...The UK is...'average'...although better in problem solving...
Only 7 OECD countries spend more...
In spite of spending £54,000 per student
Putting these grounded recommendations into a SOLUTION, the Cambridge Centre for Innovation in Technological Education (CCITE) 20-20 STEM Solution framework has 20 projects for each of UK key stage 2 (late primary) and 3 (early secondary), hence 20-20. Its features are:

enjoyment, self belief, stamina
challenging real-world problems calling for cross-disciplinary, teamworking, creativity
with high perception of the value of education and parental engagement

The following presents the framework (which contains the above plus employer and community engagement), and evaluation including both skills and perception - including self-belief and perception of education.
Personal, Learning and Thinking Skills

- assessment by Self, Peer and Teacher

Measuring 'before and after' self-esteem, aspirations, respect - for self, school and community
Measuring 'before and after' individual perception of the importance of technology, skills, different routes for technology careers, and the importance of communication skills and teamworking
Education and Technology Perception
Self Perception
Personal Learning Thinking Skills On-line Evaluation
Included in the evaluation must be

We can access this in terms of both SKILLS development and also PERCEPTION:

Self Perception
Education and Technology Perception

Here are some examples:

PISA Recommendations 2012
Positive impact on student engagement
Improve students’ attention and focus
Increase the amount of student interactions with instructors
Increase achievement in teaching geometry, transformations and trigonometry
Increase test scores
Achieve higher than students taught with traditional teaching methods
Benefit students who struggle with visualizing more than students who do not
1 Akkaya, A., Tatar, E., & Kağizmanli, T. (2011). Using dynamic software in teaching of the symmetry in analytic geometry: The case of GeoGebra. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences 15, 2540–2544.
2 Bakar, K. A., Ayub, A. F. M., & Tarmizi, R. A. (2002). Exploring the effectiveness of using GeoGebra and e-transformation in teaching and learning Mathematics. Proc. of Intl. Conf. of Advanced Educational Technologies EDUTE, 2, 19-23.
3 Bakar, K., Ayuba, A., Luan, W., & Tarmizia, R. (2010). Exploring secondary school students’ motivation using technologies in teaching and learning Mathematics. Procedia Social and Behavioral Science, 2, 4650-4654.
4 Lu, Y. W. A. (2008). Linking geometry and algebra: a multiple-case study of upper secondary mathematics teachers’ conceptions and practices of GeoGebra in England and Taiwan . Doctoral dissertation, Master’s thesis, University of Cambridge, UK.
5 Saha, R., Ayubb, A., & Tarmizi, R. (2010). The effects of GeoGebra on Mathematics achievement: Enlightening coordinate geometry learning. Procedia Social and Behavioral Science, 8, 686-693.
6 Zengin, Y., Furkan, H., & Kutluca, T. (2012). The effect of dynamics mathematics software geogebra on student achievement in teaching of trigonometry. Procedia Social and Behavorial Sciences, 31 , 183-187.
‘GeoGebra - Impact of Technology on the Mathematics Classroom’ (http://engagementjdw.webs.com/geogebra.htm)
I'm useless at maths! (sometimes said with pride by parents and teachers)


Maths is not COOL (kids)


Pretend not to be interested (my highly able, achieving grandaughter)
UK Parents, Teacher and Kids Subjective Comments

Education systems and societies at large need to invest in ensuring that students enjoy learning, believe in their abilities and capacity to succeed, and also, crucially, have the stamina to face challenging problems and situations

PISA 2012 Reports:
1 What students know and can do
2 Excellence through Equality
4 What makes Schools Successful

3 PISA 2012 Results: Ready to Learn: Students' Engagement, Drive and Self-Beliefs (Volume III)
The Communication and Collaboration between students and mentors in four countries can be seen by scrolling bottom-up this Facebook group.

Projects can be undertaken part or all on-line as in this MOOC (Massively On-Line Open Course) on Analysing Sporting Performance. This asks students to address a Hothousing challenge, working in teams, video recording movement, capturing it in Tracker software, creating a simulation in GeoGebra and developing their own solutions.
Example Solution
GeoGebra Evidence
But how do we implement these?
See also:
PISA 2012 results, top-level recommendations and review

STEM solution framework meeting PISA recommendations.

Example solution: You can use the links in this presentation to:

Try a PISA test yourself
Try a MOOC (Massively On-line Open Course) featuring GeoGebra
Download GeoGebra .ggb files from the MOOC
View a Facebook GeoGebra project collaboration between four countries
View further PREZIs examples
Try a Geogebra maths game for a 5 year old.

Conclusion: PISA recommendations can be implemented in diverse solutions ranging from physical to Facebook to Massively On-line Open Courses (MOOC), by including them in a Project requirements and acceptance criteria.

"If school systems want all of their students to succeed, they should give the children of factory workers and cleaners the same educational opportunities as the children of doctors and lawyers enjoy" Andreas Schleicher OECD in 2012 PISA
PISA have produced 4 volumes and their main recommendation appears in volume 3:
There are many ifs and buts...

(1) One might criticise the tests as too narrow or too easy. You can try a test sample on:

(2) Although the recommendations may appear reasonable there appears no logical path from results to recommendations - these recommendations are not GROUNDED.

So let us compare them against other sources.
How do they compare with frequently expressed subjective comments...
Let us compare against other research
There is considerable evidence that GeoGebra can contribute in many ways:
'I could already see an improvement in my 5 year olds counting strategy after a while of playing it.'
5..... 8.....and older
GeoGebra workshop for 240 pupils average age......8!
These are my favourites :-) they are really interesting because young children are learning from and enjoying GeoGebra!
Play it yourself!
As you go through the next five GeoGebra screens, decide as quickly as you can 'Who has more?' - the 10-frame...or the dice?
How did you do?!

You can also have a go for real on: http://www.geogebratube.org/material/show/id/28755
(Thanks to GoldenJ)
Thanks to Federico Fabrizi, Pietro Pennestrì
...and 8-year old students!
the most important recommendation of all - you have to enjoy it!
Maths & Techno- Phobia?
Challenging Problems & Situations
These comments do indeed support the PISA: Self-Belief
Typical Agenda
Putting them together...the PISA recommendations do indeed appear to be supported...and further...we have discovered ways of grounding the recommendations i.e. telling us what to do...
Challenging Problems & Situations

Real-world problem solving
High perception of education, Parental engagement
Try this 'Analysing Sporting Performance'
MOOC containing many resources on:

< Open-ended challenge
< The group organises itself with 100% engagement
< Feedback loop
< Its the students' group problem, not the teacher's
< Outside support
< Real-life problem
< Creative
Typical Agenda

< Creative, open ended

< Intensive

< 'Technology 'teach-ins' & Project planning

< Presentations & feedback

< Initially tightly structured then more and more responsibility on students

< No 'teach' - support if requested

< Hard work

< Enjoy!

GeoGebra STEM:
The Art, Business and Science Bridge - or STEAM with GeoGebra
The Impact of GeoGebra - Evidence:
Only 7 OECD countries spend more...
Indeed, the children of factory workers and cleaners in Shanghai (PISA score: 569) and Singapore (534) outperform the sons and daughters of UK doctors and lawyers (525.94)...
Hard to disagree with:-)

Indeed, a little obvious...

The problem is...these recommendations are not GROUNDED - they don't tell us what to do.
PISA call for EQUALITY of Opportunity
Author note: My father worked in a factory and my mother was a cleaner:-)
OECD April 2014
Most recently, PISA have presented scores for problem solving.

Health warning: In this presentation I do not endorse or otherwise the PISA methodology or results - but a lot of attention is being paid to it and the DANGER is that we go 'back to basics' in an attempt to get the reading and maths scores up

That's NOT what PISA recommend at all...bearing that in mind...
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