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Karma Yoga

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Nicole Green

on 20 March 2013

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Transcript of Karma Yoga

A˙ nguttara Nik¯aya clearly denies that the results of an action can be eliminated or “wiped out” when the deed is intentional (sa ˜ ncetanika) Selfless Service/Karma Yoga Can be defined as "Action" What is Karma? All actions have consequences which will eventually affect the person.
Cause and effect
Action and reaction
Good action=good effect
Bad action=bad effect
It is actions which are performed with an interest in achieving some result or which arise from desire and passion which bring about karmic effects. (Bhagavad-Gita)
Based on Attitude not actions Law of Karma Mother Theresa People Who Practice Karma Yoga Mahatma Gandhi People Who Practice Karma Yoga -She lived from 1910 to 1997
-She was a Roman Catholic Nun
-Joined the Sisters of Loreto at age 18 and was appointed head mistress after 20 years of serving
-Began as a teacher but became passionate about the extreme poverty experienced by the people of Calcutta
-Dedicated her life to serving the poor and began to live among them
-She got permission from the Vatican to found the "Missionaries of Charity"
-Started Hospices and soup kitchens
-Wanted people to die "loved and wanted"

Mukherjee, B. (1999). Mother Teresa. Time, 153 (23), 88. Karma Yoga Retreats Benefits of Karma Yoga -The path leads to salvation through action
-One must practice and do the work without thinking of the results because attachment to the results can lead to stress and aggression
-Karma Yoga practice reduces stress and can allow people to live more satisfying lives
-Can be used to treat stress disorders, in marital problems, substance abuse, and more
-Allows one to find meaning and purpose to life
-Suffering can be eliminated
-Non-attachment = bliss, happiness, well-being, strength
-Can help others out of suffering as well

Kumar, A., & Kumar, S. (2013). Karma Yoga: A Path Towards Work in Positive Psychology. Indian Journal of Psychiatry,2, 55, 150-152. What is Karma Yoga? Karma Yoga is a form of yoga based on the teachings of Bhagavad Gita, a sacred Sanskrit scripture of Hinduism.

The word yoga means to link or connect...but to what you ask?

The Gita explains these connecting entities as:

1. The individual consciousness
2. The universal Supreme consciousness (Most scholars believe this to be God)

The philosophy is:

The Universal energy (individual conscious) is a manifestation of the spirit inside our bodies and it is part of the supreme soul (God)

Paul, Goutam. (n.d.). "The Ultimate Science of Yoga". Retrieved 3/19/2013 from http://www.cs.albany.edu/~goutam/ScYogaCamera.pdf Purpose of Karma Yoga To connect our individual energy with the universal energy or connecting the individual soul to its supreme being

This connection is not physical but spiritual

Our individuality remains in tact all while we become united with God Modern Day Karma Yoga: Purpose is often misunderstood as being a health benefit

Although it does benefit your health its main purpose is:

To connect our individual consciousness to the supreme consciousness by controlling

1. One's body
2. Mind
3. Senses

Karma yoga requires engaging in actions
without attachment to the desires of our ego

It is for the purpose of the common good

Paul, Goutam. (n.d.). "The Ultimate Science of Yoga". Retrieved 3/19/2013 from http://www.cs.albany.edu/~goutam/ScYogaCamera.pdf "Practicing Karma Yoga is developing selflessness by performing actions without expectations or receiving rewards of any kind

Most acts of service are rewarded through:

1. Monetary compensation
2. Public Recognition
3. A simple Thank You

But Karma Yoga does not permit this attachment towards rewards

Instead they are to follow the divine law:

Connect with Universal energy -Lived from 1869-1948
-Stood for non-violent civil disobedience
-Studied Indian Law in London and then first began his activism in South Africa at age 24
-Moved to India where he united Hindu's and Muslims against British oppression
-Organized peasants in India to protest high land taxes
-Led the people to freedom and inspired civil rights
-Would fast for long periods of time for self purification and political mobilization
-Believed that true religion lies beyond the practice
-Believed that social injustices must be changed not by violent acts but by changing the hearts of the oppressors

Quirk, M.J. (2001). Gandhi. Cross Currents, 51 (1), 115-118. -All over the world from the UK to Costa Rica and California
-Designed to purify oneself and become in-touch with oneself and have the opportunity to experience spiritual transformation
-Some are as short as one week, others last months
-Consist of daily Yoga and meditation, ceremonies, projects, vegetarian meals, and service to the other members of the retreat Karma and Buddhism Types of Karma (Buddhism) varies Dark Action (16)
Bright Action
Dark and Bright Action
Neither dark nor bright Only 2 types of Karma (14) Good/ Wholesome
Bad/unwholesome Ghose, L. (2007). Karma And The Possibility Of Purification: An Ethical and Psychological Analysis of the Doctrine of Karma in Buddhism. Journal of Religious Ethics, 35.2, 259-289. Ghose, L. (2007). Karma And The Possibility Of Purification: An Ethical and Psychological Analysis of the Doctrine of Karma in Buddhism. Journal of Religious Ethics, 35.2, 259-289. Reichenbach, B., R. (1988). The Law of Karma and the Principle of Causation. Philosophy East and West,38,4, 399-410. References Selanders, L. C., & Crane, P. C. (2012). The Voice of Florence Nightingale on Advocacy. Online Journal Of Issues In Nursing, 17(1), 1.
Ghose, L. (2007). Karma And The Possibility Of Purification: An Ethical and Psychological Analysis of the Doctrine of Karma in Buddhism. Journal of Religious Ethics, 35.2, 259-289.
Kumar, A., & Kumar, S. (2013). Karma Yoga: A Path Towards Work in Positive Psychology. Indian Journal of Psychiatry,2, 55, 150-152.
Millen, T., Lerner, M., & Weiner, I. (2003). Handbook of Psychology, Vol. 5: Personality and Social Psychology. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Mukherjee, B. (1999). Mother Teresa. Time, 153 (23), 88.
Reichenbach, B., R. (1988). The Law of Karma and the Principle of Causation. Philosophy East and West,38,4, 399-410.
Quirk, M.J. (2001). Gandhi. Cross Currents, 51 (1), 115-118.
Paul, Goutam. (n.d.). "The Ultimate Science of Yoga". Retrieved 3/19/2013 from http://www.cs.albany.edu/~goutam/ScYogaCamera.pdf
SIvananda, Swami. (2005). Karma Yoga. Retrieved 3/19/2013 from http://www.dlshq.org/teachings/karmayoga.htm#practice In the J¯atakas, it is stated that “All kamma (action), whether good or evil, bears fruit" In the Sutta Nip¯ata, all actions are said to reap results, even those of a M¯ara or a Brahma, and a person’s karma is never destroyed or lost The Majjhima Nik¯aya also states that we are the “heirs” of our actions, 0r entirely a product of past action Practice of Karma Yoga Karma Yogi Qualifications 1. Free from lust, greed, anger and egoism
2. Not expect any rewards in return for his actions
3. Have no desires for name and fame
4. Be Humble and free of hatred
5. Always speak kind words
6. Be absolutely fearless
7. Have a loving social nature
8. Lead a simple life
9. Have faith in yourself, God and the scriptures Motivation for Service Attitude that brings Karmic Effect Questions for Consideration Can altruism and self-benefits coexist?

Does the motivation change the value of the actual action?

What ultimately serves a person better: engaging in service that is altruistically motivated or egoistically motivated? Is "selfless service" always selfless?

Altruistic motivation vs egoistic motivation


Altruism: motivation to increase another person’s welfare

Egoism: motivation to increase one’s own welfare Karma Yogi Qualifications 1. Free from lust, greed, anger and egoism
2. Not expect any rewards in return for his actions
3. Have no desires for name and fame
4. Be Humble and free of hatred
5. Always speak kind words
6. Be absolutely fearless
7. Have a loving social nature
8. Lead a simple life
9. Have faith in yourself, God and the scriptures Tension Reduction •Also referred to as aversive-arousal reduction

•People find it upsetting to see another person suffer

•Therefore, in order to no longer be upset, they relieve the other person’s suffering

•Vicarious distress and seeing ourselves in the other

•Motivated to escape his or her own distress

•Helping that person is a way to escape distress because it gets rid of the stimulus causing the aversive arousal Maintain Our Concept of the World Maintain or Enhance Self Concept & Self Esteem Social Norms •Just world hypothesis (Lerner)
•Most people believe in a just world – people get what they deserve and deserve what they get
•The existence of a victim of innocent suffering is inconsistent with this belief
•To reduce the arousal brought about by this inconsistency, a person may be motivated help someone in need •Maintaining a positive self-concept and avoiding guilt
•If I see myself as a caring, helpful person, I should help if I see someone in need
•If I don’t, it violates my sense of self and causes cognitive dissonance
•“What will I think of myself if I don’t help? •It’s what is expected of you

•“What will others think if I don’t help?”

•Our social norms say that we should help people in need to avoid social or self censure

•Reciprocity: we should help people who help us

•Social responsibility: we should help another in need when that person is dependent on us

•Conflict in social norms: “help those in need” vs “mind your own business” Millen, T., Lerner, M., & Weiner, I. (2003). Handbook of Psychology, Vol. 5: Personality and Social Psychology. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Millen, T., Lerner, M., & Weiner, I. (2003). Handbook of Psychology, Vol. 5: Personality and Social Psychology. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Millen, T., Lerner, M., & Weiner, I. (2003). Handbook of Psychology, Vol. 5: Personality and Social Psychology. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Millen, T., Lerner, M., & Weiner, I. (2003). Handbook of Psychology, Vol. 5: Personality and Social Psychology. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Millen, T., Lerner, M., & Weiner, I. (2003). Handbook of Psychology, Vol. 5: Personality and Social Psychology. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. People Who Practice Karma Yoga Florence Nightingale •Lived from 1820-1910
•English social reformer and statistician, and the founder of modern nursing
•By age of 17, believed she had a Christian duty to serve humankind
•Decided to go into nursing at age 25
•At the age of 30 she studied nursing at Kasiserswerth
•1852: superintendent of a small hospital in central London
•About a year later, appointed by Victorian government to provide nursing care for British soldiers in Crimean War
•Fought to improve sanitary conditions for wounded soldiers, drastically cut down the death rate
•Became known as the “The Lady with the Lamp”
•Pushed to make sure that nurses received adequate training
•She was able to design improvements for the British military and establish public health standards in India Selanders, L. C., & Crane, P. C. (2012). The Voice of Florence Nightingale on Advocacy. Online Journal Of Issues In Nursing, 17(1), 1. Jaime Gomez, Nicole Green, Amy Thomas, & Tiffany Riggs
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