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Transcript of Graduation Project
* meeting with Boss
* Groceries what? So whats the practice? How does the whole plan look like?! Construction activities * Develop a construction plan
all construction activities
most common, suitable, & practical for this region Approvals
& Permits * Pumping out groundwater that might interfere with construction operations Site
Treatments Earthworks Concrete
works why? wait a minute!! Something is missing!
your site is
not sustainable! help!
What do I do?!! Don't worry!
I have the answer! Approvals &
Permits Site preparation
& Mobilization Dewatering &
Treatments Earthworks Concrete
Works Finishing Handing over
Demobilization * I'm a good planner!
* Start my own construction company
* Take advantage & learn! Dewatering Finishing
works * The contractor should get a building permit before moving to the site.
* Other permits might be required depending on site conditions, like permit for dewatering.
* NOCs from:
- AD SSC
- EAD Generally, site preparations include: * Sitting the zero level.
* Installing temporary fence.
* Installing sign boards.
* Setting up temporary structures
* Batter boards setup and building layout.
* Transporting main heavy construction equipment. BUT! you should plan a head how you're going to organize your site! this is called, laying out a construction site! Typical site plan There are no specific guidelines for laying out a site, as long as you're:
- optimizing work efficiency
- creating good work environment smartly locate:
> Site offices & sanitary.
> Storage & waste area.
> Tower crane
> access roads. There are a lot of systems to choose from! Deep well Electro-osmosis But what's the most suitable system to select?! * choosing which system to use depends on:
- size of project
- type of soil
- depth of groundwater
- depth of excavation * There are a lot of design aids that help! Usually, a specialized subcontractor
handles this job!
It's all based on the soil investigation report! How to get rid of all this pumped water?!
* Nearest main sewage manhole
* Nearest waterways Effects of the environment
1.Reduction in groundwater.
2.Soil erosion or local flooding.
3.Harm to native vegetation surrounding the structure.
4.Soil of groundwater acidification Soil might need some treatments!
* Anti-termite treatment.
* soil stabilization (grouting).
* Soil densefication.
* Soil replacement. Anti-termite treatment * Threat the substructure of the building * Treatment includes
applying a toxic to the
soil to terminate this insect Soil Grouting * Enhancing the physical properties of soil With cement with lime injecting soil with stabilizing material * Increase its' strength soil densification * Effective for sandy soils
* Done either by: Dynamic Impact Vibratory effect soil replacement * Last option!
* Simple & ease
* Usually for organic soils Simply means digging the ground surface! Main things to consider:
* Equipment selection:
- Compaction (if required)
- Hauling unites
* Protecting excavation The process is: failure to do that will lead to:
1. Material stacks wrongly located.
2. Equipment wrongly located.
3. Inadequate space allowed * The municipality sends a surveying team to plot the parameters of the area. Excavation equipment But how to select?! * Generally, the selection depends on
size of excavation.
* You have to decide:
- Type of equipment
- the number of machines But there are selection guidelines like this one! compaction equipment * Usually carried out after backfilling. * Essential to densify the soil 1st select a technique! 2nd select an equipment to do the job WE need trucks!! * they're the loading units
* they come on different sizes Protecting Excavated area * Excavation is a dangerous operation. * Different methods to protect excavated areas
* Most common used ones in the region:
- sloping the sides.
- supporting the sides. handing over
Demobilization * concrete building are common in this region. * Structural steel is getting popular too! things to keep in mind when planning concrete works! Mixing operation.
Transportation of concrete mix.
Concrete delivery and placement.
Consolidation, finishing, and Curing.
Weather conditions concrete works can be summed
in the following steps! You CAN NOT cast concrete in hot weather! but why?! > Increase in the setting time.
> Reduction in the workability of the mix.
> Poor surface appearance> Plastic shrinkage cracking, and thermal cracking. So whats the solution?! * Controlling the temperature of the mix
* Adding admixtures.
* Deliver concrete at time!
* Cast when it's cool! What if the
element's size is so big?! construction joints
are the answer It's time to make the building look good! Finishing works include:
> block works
> curtain walls
> plastering & painting
> installing doors & windows units
> sanitary facilities
> electrical wiring and finishes
> HVAC system.
> all kinds of insulation. Let's rap it up fellows! 1. snag list
2. testing & commissioning
3. Authorities’ check & approval
4. submit to client & demobilize Snagging * Done by the consultant
* Checking all components & systems of the building:
- Structural (civil)
- Finishing works Testing & commissioning * Most important stage.
* Operating all building's systems.
* Make sure that they work as they're designed. Authorities' check * All required documents & plans are submitted to concerned authorities
> AD Municipality.
>Civil defence. * As-built drawings.
* warranty & guaranty.
* move out of the site Submit to client Sit your goals first! •* Integrated design process.•
* Reducing, reusing & recycling construction waste.
* Controlling and minimizing construction noise and vibration.
* Controlling air pollution.
* Reducing the effects of construction operations
* Welfare of workers and staff members. Reward The building will get
Estidama Certificate Integrated design process 1. Clear and continuous communication.
2. Attention to details.
3. Active collaboration among all team members Before construction During construction after construction Results!
* Achieving and optimizing the main goal of the building.
* Better designs.
* Sustainable building.
* Less errors and design modifications Compliance with Estidama
* It's a requirement.
* Integrated Design Process section.
* 3 credits concern the contractor:
- Integrated Development Strategy.
- Guest Worker Accommodation
- Sustainable construction practices Waste management plan 3 strategies to minimize construction waste Material handling & purchasing Material selection Construction Methods,
Planning, management Construction waste
planning Store materials properly Accurate quantity take-off prefabricated sections are better Recycle packaging non-toxic better than toxic * High-quality
* standard sizes Methods Locate workshops use concrete chucks and waste Repair & use exciting infrastructure excavated soil for backfilling & landscaping Keep leftovers!! planning & management plane time of delivery list all anticipated waste
- plastic compliance with Estidama Stewarding Materials SM-R2: Basic Construction Waste Management SM-4: Regional Materials SM-5: Recycled Materials SM-7: Improved Construction Waste Management Controlling noise & vibration 1. What are the sources?
2. What's surrounding the site?
3. What can we do about it?! working hours Location * quieter Equipment
* barrier protection
* nose parameter zones Compliance with Estidama Noise control plan is part of IDP Code of Practice AD EHS require:
1. warning workers at site is noise greater than 85 A.
2. protection devices provided. Controlling Air emissions Sources: dust, odors, gases * Water the site.
* Use barriers around dusty activities.
* Use hard surfaces or paving all haul routes and access roads.
* Cover all hauling trucks when loaded. * switch off engines of all vehicles.
* Use sweepers to clean roads.
* Locate stockpiles out of the wind direction.
* Keep stockpiles to a minimum height. * use proper ventilation.
* workers wear masks how to control?! Sustainable
construction Compliance with Estidama It's also part of IDP! Soil &
groundwater Dewatering & earthmoving Activities that effect What to do to minimize effects?! 1. minimize earthmoving during rainfall.
2. stockpiles away from drains & water bodies.
3. filter pumped groundwater before disposal.
4. store excavated soil for future use.
5. park all heavy vehicles in one location Compliance with Estidama part of IDP Best things to consider!! Estidama
shortcomings Few credits for sustainable construction measurements! how? * The construction site should be secured.
* Lifting equipment located smartly.
* In case of going beyond site's parameter:
- Get approval from ADM.
- Surrounding properties not harmed.
- safety of pedestrians. * Only two system allowed in AD:
- Well-point system.
* filter pumped water
* Dispose to nearest manhole
* Obtain permit from ADM Other considerations
> Trafficability: Can the soil handle heavy vehicle traffic?
> Loadability: How ease it is to excavate & load the soil?
> Swell: Will the soil increase in volume when excavated? * Site Investigation report
- Type of soil (mostly silty sand in AD)
- Groundwater table.
- contamination test.
* two protection systems:
- supporting excavated area.
* Access to excavated area.
* welfare of workers.
* safety barriers. Design
system! * Transit mixing
* Central mixing * Checking the formwork.
* Removing all the trash and debris.
* Checking reinforcement.
* required manpower is ready.
* required machines. Delivery:
* check type of concrete delivered.
* the quantity delivered.
* sample testing.
* two types of pumps: static, mobile Consolidation & finishing Curing About the structure: - 2 Story villa
- Basement at depth 2.50 m. About the soil: •- Groundwater table: between 2.00m and 2.50 m below zero level.•- Type of soil: Silty sand.
- No soil treatments were required.- Recommended to hire a specialized company to design and install an appropriate supporting system. Dewatering system used:
- Well-point dewatering system.
- specialized sub-contractor was hired.
- Depth of dewatered soil: 3.00 m Equipment used:
- Excavation: front-end loader & hydraulic excavator.
- Trucks to transport removed soil.
- Compactor: compaction was not required. Front end loader was used for general grading and spreading. Flow of process:
1. Clearing and grabbing.
2. Excavation and digging to the required depth was carried out.
3. Leveling and grading the bottom and sides of the excavated area.
4. Supporting excavated area using soldier piles supporting system.
5.Casting PCC (Plane cement concrete) layer and waterproof the bottom and sides of excavated area.
6. Build mat foundation and retaining walls. Is my designing process efficient? thanks for listening!!
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