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Water cycles and features

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Stephanie Tourand

on 11 May 2010

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Transcript of Water cycles and features

Double click anywhere & awwdd an idea Water Cycle and Water Features 7.1 Water in Our World 7.1 Water in Our World
around 2.8 % of Earth's water is fresh
fresh water contains little salt
the salinity of ocean water is around 3.5%
the salt comes from salt and minerals on land
estaries: were rivers flow into oceans
ocean water pushed up into rivers is called brackish water
Canada has around 9% of the worlds fresh water
just over 2% world's water solid

7.3 The Water Cycle water cycle can: influence weater keep rivrs and lakes full, purify water, and sustain many forms of life
the suns energy causes liquid water on earth to change to vapor
the water rises into thae air then it cools
the cool air condenes air into tiny drops of water collect onto dust forming clouds & fog
once to much water gathers it falls onto the earth as precipitation
the water then flows along the surface of the ground and gathers in rivers, lakes, and oceans
water can soak into the soil and become ground water
7.5 Power of Water 8.1 Geological Features at Sea and on Land 8.2 Glaciers: Rivers of Ice 8.7 Tides Sediment: gravel, sand, silt, and mud
Weathering:
Weatering- breaking of rocks into sedimens
water freezes in cracks in a rock, expands, wedges rocks apart
water dissolves certain minerals in rocks, rocks unstable
plant roots can breack through rocks
Erosion:
erosion: wearing away Earth's surface by material movement
caused by gravity, running water, waves, moving ice, and wind
vegetation helps soil not be carried by surface runoff
deposition: sediment setteling to the bottom of the river
delta: flat area of land formed by settled sediment at river mouth
humans can dredge to remove built-up sediment
Floods and Avalaches:





Prezi by Stephanie Tourand flood ocurs when it overflows its normal boundaries
floods can result from: rainfall, high winds, snow melting and waves
flood plain: flat area on either side of river, floods when water overflows
avalanche: snow landslide
may be undercut by wind, repeated heating & thawing causes weak areas in snow
Water Mangement
dikes: long wall of soil built along banks, prevent flooding
ways to help: advise people not to build on flood plains
Working Together:
many specialists and organizations monitor water situation
Continental Shelves
continental shelf: the ocean floor gently downward, away from continents
can be between 1 to several hundred kilometers
edge of continental shelf: continental slope
continental rise: gently increasing slope where ocean floor meets continental slope
area of crust surface where oceanic plate meets continental plate
abysssl plain: large flat areas, much of ocean floor,
sediment settles on bottom of ocean, fills up holes, levels off ocean
Underwater Mountain
largest mountain range is underwater
seamount: underwater volcano
guyot volcanic island that got covered by water again
Canyons and Trenches
Canyons: deep steep-sided valleys
most canyons formed by rivers
rivers run into ocean, may erode seabed
trenches: run parallel to coast, formed were two oceanic tectonic plates converge
Lakes
Basins: depressions in earths surface
thought that melted glaciers from iceage created lakes
water enters lakes through: percipitation, ground water, inlets (where rivers enter lakes)
landlocked lake: lake with no apparent inlet/outlet, can be very salty
Rivers
often begins in mountains, springs, or melting glaciers
tributaries: smaller rivers and streams
sediment deposited as river slows, changes rivers course
Watersheds and the Continental
plate techtonics move, mountains form, water moves around mountain
water divided
this carves valleys and canyons
watershed: area surrounded around high-elevation land, water ruins to common destination
Continental Divide follows crest of Rocky Mountains, seperates water west to pacific from water heading north and east
Columbia Icefeild, 30 glaciers, heart of Continental divide, meltwater drains into oceans Glaciers
masses of ice and snow built up over thousands of years
alpine glacier: on mountains, continental glacier: near north or south pole
lower layers turned into clear ice because of snows weight
weight also causes alpine glaciers to slowly move downhill
moves over uneven ground: ice breaks produces crevasses
all of Antartica and most of greenland cover by a glacier
cold air flows off continental glaciers, cool surrounding area, creates polar easterlies
little precipitation, true dessert
polar icecap not glacier, over water not land, produces similar weather effects
Glacial Features
weight of glaciers grind down mountains
rocks, gravel, sand, dragged by glacier erode bedrock
cirques: small beginnings of glaciers, create afmchair-like hollows in mountain side
arete: two cirques on mountain erode together,creates sharp ridge
three or more aretes carve mounain peak into pyramid shape called horn
hanging valley: small glacier meets large glacier
u-shaped valley bellow sea reaches coast creat fiords
commonly narrow inlets in coast, steep walls
Moraines: large ridges of gravel, sand, boulders, pushed aside by glaciers
Eskers: long snake-like mounds of sand & gravel, mark path of meltwater streams under glacier
striations: glacier made groves in igneous rocks
erratics: abandoned boulders that were moved by glaciers
glacier reaches ocean, icebergs break off into water






Tides
Tides: high/low water levels caused by gravitational pull of Moon & Sun & Earth's rotation
Tidal range: difference between water levels at high/low tide
Cause of tides
primary cause ocean tides: gravitational pull of the Moon bulging water towards it
tidal bulges appear to move continuously round earth
most places 2 high tide 2 low tide
Sun & Moon right angle, tidal range smallest, neap tides
Sun, Moon, Earth aligned, tidal range greatest, spring tides
occurs twice each lunar month (apx. 29.5 days)
Middle ocean bulge unnoticeable shallower pronounced
land features and weather contribute to tide levels

Information: BC Science Probe 8
Pictures: various websites off of Google The End!
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