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Aquatic Biotechnology - Medicine from the Sea
Transcript of Aquatic Biotechnology - Medicine from the Sea
(Oregon, 2011) The natural products are not only used for medicine and drugs, it is also used in many of the products we use in our daily lives. Carrageenan, found in algae and seaweed is used in preserved foods, toothpaste, cosmetics, chewing gum, chocolate milk, beers and wines.
(Alexandra, 2011) Opinion I think using aquatic biotechnology for medicine is an excellent idea. It is a great way to use the many gifts in nature. It seems more ethical to take natural products than processed drugs and chemical to improve our health, or to even use in our daily lives. The advantages seem to outweigh the disadvantages because the disadvantages can be avoided. The use of aquatic biotechnology does nothing but benefit us through knowledge and understanding. Aquatic biotechnology enables scientists to identify genes that are helping to advance our understanding of human health and disease. Osteoporosis, for example, is a condition characterized by a progressive loss of bone mass which over 90% of roughly 25 million Americans, mostly women, are affected. A common treatment is human recombinant calcitonin a thyroid hormone that stimulates calcium uptake, bone calcification, inhibits hone-digesting cells. A recent study shows that some species of salmon produce this form of calcium. It is now available for delivery as an injection form and a nasal spray. Statistics In the US less than 50 million is spent annually for research and development.
Japan spends between $900 million and 1 billion annually. Based on the successful research of Asian countries that have invested in basic science research on aquatic biotechnology and financial success have encouraged other countries to invest a significant amount of time and resources in aquatic biotech.
(Alexandra, 2011) Career Marine Biologist
Marine biology is the study of aquatic organisms, their behaviours and their interactions with the environment. There are many possible topics of study within the field of marine biology so many researches select a particular interest in which they specialize in. Specializations can be based on particular species, organisms, behaviour or the ecosystem.
Marine biologists are employed aquariums/ museums, colleges and universities, and private research laboratories.
Biologists with less than one year of experience start at around $33, 000 per year. The mean salary is almost $55,000 per year, but as biologists gain more experience and education in their field, they can earn more than $80,000. Biologists with more than 30 years of experience have a median salary of around $103,000.
(Careers, 2011) Disadvantages With the new understanding of aquatics, it brings up the idea of genetically engineered aquatic organisms. Concerns have been raised over the potential risks posed by these organisms. No genetically engineered aquatic organism fish has been approved for commercial use or released in Canada, nor has DFO received any regulatory applications to import of grow these organisms for commercial use. With great success, products using aquatic biotechnology is now high in demand. Resources for these products are limited. There is a risk of changing the ecosystem when it is disturbed by humans. The change in numbers of specie, or plant my alter the ecosystem, and cause a chain reaction. Species are at risk of becoming extinct or endangered if precautions are not taken. Ethical Issue From the very start, when pioneers took medicine took an oath, the importance of ethical considerations in relations to actions affecting living entities has always been recognized by professionals. It is very important for us humans, to have respect for life, and the need for balance of benefit over harm resulting from any intervention. Using aquatic biotechnology, the marine life is being disturbed for our benefit. Humans are very self-centered, so we tend to think about more of the things we can benefit from than the harm we cause. Through gaining the many benefits of health, the products and such we put at risk marine life and we disturb nature. Many feel that having ‘respect for life’ implies that there should be no interference in any way. People worry that through these studies, doors are open to genetics-based biotechnology, and the greed to develop ahead will come before proper ethical consideration.
(Alexandra, 2011) Canada is known internationally as having one of the world’s safest and most effective science-based regulatory systems for biotechnology. All products are inspected and are subject to rigorous standards and scientific risk assessment for potential health and environmental impact under the “Canadian Environmental Protection Act” (1999).
The scientific knowledge gained will help regulators to critical evaluate potential risks, resulting in greater understanding.
Aquatic ecosystem is protected through this act, and all products made through aquatic biotechnology is assessed and are only sold if they are safe. Genetically engineered fish for example, has not been approved for commercial use or release in Canada.
(Fisheries and Oceans, 2005) Canadian Contributions Fisheries and Oceans, (2005). Aquatic biotechnology Canada: Retrieved from http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/aquaculture/sheet_feuillet/aqua_biotech-eng.htm Careers, Bioscience. (2011, May 17). Marine biologist. Retrieved from http://www.aboutbioscience.org/marine_biologist.html Alexandra, Gorgevoska. (2011, May 17). Aquatic biotechnology. Retrieved from http://www.docstoc.com/docs/33492555/Aquatic-Biotechnology Oregon, University. (2011). Aquatic biotechnology; wave of the future. Unpublished manuscript, Biology, University of Oregon State, Corvallis, US. Retrieved from http://agsci.oregonstate.edu/aquatic-bt/biotechnology/what-is-it Biotechnology is a set of techniques based off of reasearch to apply to various types of product developments. It also refers to the usage by industries regarding recombinant DNA, cell fusion and others.
Aquatic biotechnology is the use of natural products discovered in a plant or animal being developed into drugs or other products. Aquatic biotechnology seeks to use living organisms (such as bacteria) or parts of living organsisms (such as DNA) from a marine environment to create or improve a wide varitye of products from pharmaceuticals.
(Alexandra, 2011) Kamau, Allan. (2011, May 14). History of biotechnology. Retrieved from http://www.ixion-biotech.com/cat/3783/ History Biotechnology was always used in medicine, even as early as 200BC by mixing various plants and other kind of organism to help immune systems. - 1900 - Mendel's principles were independent, tested, and verified, marking the beginning of modern genetics
- 1919 - Biotechnology is a used term within the science community
- 1944 - DNA proven to carry genetic information
- 1972 - Paul Berg Herb Boyer produced the first recombinant DNA molecules
- 1973 - Annie Chang Stanley Cohen showed that a recombinant DNA molecule can be maintained and replicated in E.coli.
- 1977 - The first genetic engineering company was founded which uses recombinant DNA methods to artificially produce medically important drugs
- 1982 - First recombinant DNA vaccine for livestock - major within genetically modified foods
- 1987 - Approval of field tests within crop plants (examples: virus resistant tomatoes) (Kamau, 2011) Aquatic Biotechnology Laboratory