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Transcript of Orthopedic Impairments
Impairments by Hafsa Yucel
& Brittnye Shaffer Implications of
Orthopedic Impairments Suggestions
& Resources Suggestions for Teachers Suggestions for Parents Resource Links Children with Orthopedic
Impairments Behavioral Implications Appropriate Learning
Strategies to Help Students
with Orthopedic Impairments Academic Implications IDEA definition Identification of Students
with Orthopedic Impairments Characteristics of Students
with Orthopedic Impairments About Orthopedic
Impairments Orthopedic impairment means a severe orthopedic impairment that adversely affects a child's educational performance. The term includes:
impairments caused by a congenital anomaly,
impairments caused by disease (e.g., poliomyelitis, bone tuberculosis),
and impairments from other causes (e.g., cerebral palsy, amputations, and fractures or burns that cause contractures). The IDEA category of orthopedic impairments contains a wide variety of disorders. These can be divided into three main areas:
and musculoskeletal disorders.
The specific characteristics of an individual who has an orthopedic impairment will depend on both the specific disease and its severity, as well as additional individual factors. Students with orthopedic impairments are relatively easy to identify, given their moderate to severe mobility issues.
However, the reasons and causes of these issues differ, as well as the severity of which the impairments disrupt everyday life and normal function. Students with orthopedic impairments are often not cognitively or mentally impaired. The degree to which modifications are needed varies in accordance to the disease, its severity, and also individual factors.
Mobility and movement are typically hindered in some way, so writing or other physical activity can be cumbersome, and if the facial muscles are affected, verbal communication can also be difficult.
Even if the above factors are not debilitating, it can often be difficult for students to stay awake or comfortable in classes, due to fatigue or pain. Students who have suffered damage to the brain may have some issues with controlling their behaviors; however, most students may not have inherent behavioral issues.
Cognitively, students with orthopedic impairments often perform at level with students of their age group, provided they are given differentiated instruction. This can depend on the severity of their mobility problems. A student may need extra training to facilitate communication, and may have difficulty controlling the muscles of their arms or legs. They may also be impatient with themselves or others, and tend to fatigue easily, and require rests due to pain. Students can need little to no, or a great deal of modifications. Some special equipment
may be required, such as:
•speech recognition software
•screen reading software
•augmentative and alternative communication devices
•academic software packages for students with disabilities
Provided with the proper tools, most students with orthopedic impairments can fare very well in a regular education classroom. Arrange your classroom to be accessible by all students. Place
desks and chairs far apart to facilitate movement.
Special furniture may be needed to accommodate students with orthopedic impairments. Normal desks can be
uncomfortable and hinder learning.
Some lesson plans may need to be modified to more easily be completed by a student with issues in writing, reading, or speaking.
Go slowly. Students often move at a slower pace due both to mobility issues and impaired communication abilities.
More than anything else, students desire acceptance. Make
your classroom a warm, welcoming, comfortable place
to be, and they will provide more to your
classroom than you can imagine. Encourage self-confidence and reliance. Of course you will always want to be there for your child, but they should be given opportunities to manage for themselves as well.
Ask for help, and support your child's educators. Often they can train you or refer you to training that will make life easier for the both of you.
Take things slowly, and allow your child to do things at his or her own pace. The Special Needs Handbook
<http://specialneedshandbook.wikispaces.com/Orthopedic+Impairment> References U.S. Department of Education
Texas Education Agency
National Association of Special Education Teachers
<http://www.naset.org/orthopedicimpairment2.0.html> Examples of
Orthopedic Impairments Brachial Plexus / Erb's Palsy -
Spinal Muscular Atrophies -
Muscular Dystrophy -
Spinal Cord Injury -
Bone Diseases -
Cerebral Palsy -
Spina Bifida -
Scoliosis - A neuromotor impairment is an abnormality of, or damage to, the brain, spinal cord, or nervous system that sends impulses to the muscles of the body. These impairments are acquired at or before birth, and often result in complex motor problems that can affect several body systems. These motor problems can include limited limb movement, loss of urinary control, and loss of proper alignment of the spine. The two most common types of neuromotor impairments are cerebral palsy and spina bifida. Neuromotor Impairments Degenerative diseases are composed of various diseases that affect motor development. The most common degenerative disease found in the school population is muscular dystrophy. Muscular dystrophy is a group of inherited diseases characterized by progressive muscle weakness from degeneration of muscle fibers. Degenerative Diseases Musculoskeletal disorders are composed of various conditions that can result in various levels of physical limitations. Two examples of musculoskeletal disorders include juvenile rheumatoid arthritis and limb deficiency. Musculoskeletal Disorders EDIE502 <http://edie502.wikispaces.com/Orthopedic++Impairments> Bright Hub Education "My Left Foot" (1989) Further Instruction Outside training and tutoring may often be needed to counteract the physical obstacles that many orthopedic impairments entail.
Specialists can include:
•Physical Therapists who work on gross motor skills (focusing on the legs, back, neck and torso)
•Occupational Therapists who work on fine motor skills (focusing on the arms and hands as well as daily living activities such as dressing and bathing)
•Speech-Language Pathologists who work with the student on problems with speech and language
•Adapted Physical Education Teachers, who are specially trained PE teachers who work along with the OT and PT to develop an exercise program to help students with disabilities <http://www.brighthubeducation.com/special-ed-inclusion-strategies/71197-having-a-child-with-an-orthopedic-impairment-in-the-class/> The Bump <http://preschooler.thebump.com/advice-parents-orthopedicimpaired-children-4792.html> The National Association of Special Education Resources
<http://www.naset.org/544.0.html#c770> Orthopedic Impairment Website