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AP United States History

AP Test Prep, Timeline & Terms

Evon Yao

on 8 May 2015

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Transcript of AP United States History

AP United States History
Early Inhabitants of the Americas, Colonial Times 1492-1754
Native Americans threatened by European colonists
most powerful Native American alliance
successfully ended generations of tribal warfare
Reasons for European Expansion
more opportunity overseas
more demand from population increase
development of navigation technology
Christianize, colonize, commerce
God, glory, gold
have strong new monarchs
need for $, control resources
Natives vs. English Settlers
live in communities, united sense of spirituality, divided by gender, depend on agricultural economies
Natives did not share or limit property, Native children part of mother's clan
European Influence
mercantilism, flood Europe with gold
slow to get involved, economic strife
slow to get involve, trade based exploration, good relationship with Native Americans
The Iroquois Confederacy
English Settlements
sponsored by Virginia Joint Stock Company
use of slave labor and
headright system
reliant on tobacco economy
lead by John Smith
Indian raids, famine, disease, economic mismanagement
give land to people based on how many they bring for labor, an incentive to import more slaves
religion based
fish, furs, lumber economy
friendly relations with Natives
Massachusetts Bay Colony:
established by Puritans, political and religious freedom, theocratic society
Columbian Exchange:
exchange of plants and animals between Europe and New World, spread disease to Native Americans
Political Institutions
self rule
Mayflower Compact:
established government for Puritans, proclaimed allegiance to king
Virginia House of Burgesses:
first representative government
sets precedence for democracy
Social Issues
successful government and ability of ruling government overseas
more colonial self-governance and moving away from England
challenged traditional thinking, Humanistic thought, less need for God, high literacy = high market, viewed secular institutions as best for development
King Phillip's War, Navigation Acts, Pequot War, Bacon's Rebellion, Salutary Neglect, Great Awakening, Zenger Tr
Native Americans:
best treated by French, economically motivated by British, poorly treated by Spanish

between Natives and colonists;
colonists win, opens additional Indian land for expansion
English government regulates trade to benefit British government;
limited colonial expansion
hostility between English settlers and Natives, competition over trade with Dutch
1676, social tension between poor, who were lacking government support and representation, and rich;
shift towards enslaved labor, increased native resistance, more competition and instability
until 1763, England did not enforce laws so colonies could flourish
1720-1740, economic revival among colonies
first culturally binding experience among all colonies
began in New England, but eventually impacted all colonies
mainly appealed to women and sons
discredited old authorities
religious diversity, increased # of women in church
Early Colonies
New England
colonies provide England with raw materials (export) and receive manufactured goods in return (import)
restricted colonial trade and manufacturing
England asserting economic dominance in colonies
most religious, least tolerant
based on triangular trade
united by religions
family based
Middle Colonies/Restoration Colonies
more local control and direct influence
unify colonies with cross communication and lack of direct influence from English monarchy
diverse, more recreational/secular, most democratic
freedom of worship, accepted greater role of women, against slavery
Southern Colonies/Restoration Colonies
tobacco and rice dependent economy
more rural small farm labor
male dominant, strict class division, no class mobility
increasing use of slavery, overwhelming slave population
first colony with religious toleration, to attract Protestants and populate the colony
founded by James Oglethorpe, tightly-disciplined and ruled like military colony, acted as buffer zone/barrier against Spain, strictly controlled = slow development
Move Towards Unity and Revolution
increasing population diversity = creates ethnic enclaves = want to reestablish unity
little to no allegiance to England, disconnected from monarchy
need for religious tolerance, social mobility, self-government
more communication between colonies
economic success
greater colonial independence, yet lacked national identity
tension between Europeans, forming European-Native alliances
French and Indian War, 1754-1763
Americans/British/Natives vs. French/Natives
colonial tensions
colonist view: no longer view British as invincible, more defiance of British authority, blockade ports, resistance to war effort and Navigation Acts
British-colonial victory, almost completely damaged British government with debt, more British influence in colonies, removal of French threat, loss of colonial confidence, more Indian and Spanish lands available
Albany Conference, 1754:
to encourage colonists to support and fight with the British against the French, first time of political unity between the colonies
British Proclamation, 1763
first formal policy that cause tension between British and colonists
restrict colonial settlement past Appalachian Mountains
British: want to control Ohio Valley, restrict colonial interaction with Indians
colonists: view as unfair hindrance to expansion, enter Ohio Valley anyways
Stamp Act, 1765
enacted to raise revenue to support British troops stationed in colonies
no taxation without representation
virtual representation:
Parliament members represent colonists in government because colonists are English subjects
colonists openly ch
allenging British policy, believed they were entitled to same rights since they were British subjects
act repealed because of boycotting
1735 Zenger criticized New York governor, is charged with libel;
jury rules Zenger guilty of libel but nullifies libel law, more criticism of government in the press, truth is not libel, freedom of press
The Revolutionary Era, 1754-1789
Continental Congress, 1774
Coercive/Intolerable Acts, 1774:
more acts passed by Parliament in response to Boston Tea Party, restricted colonists' rights;
granted Britain power over colonists, showed them not to mess with Britain as they had complete control, colonists view this act as unfair and oppressive, create first Continental Congress
delegates met to discus how to deal with oppressive British government
established consolidation amongst the colonies
First: establish Olive Branch Petition
Second: Articles of Confederation,
Declaration of Independence
philosophy of natural rights, Enlightenment, accused King George III of tyranny
The Revolutionary War
Battle of Lexington and Concord
, 1775
2. British dominating the colonists @ Bunker Hill
3. British starting to fall behind,
Trenton and Princeton
4. Colonists receiving French assistance; King Louis XVI didn't like the British, saw trade opportunities with an independent America
5. Colonist victory, led by Nathaniel Greene
British sends troops to Concord to stop colonists that began arming for war, shot fired and heard in Lexington = signal for British to fire against colonists = marked beginning of war = colonists fight back
first victories of Continental Army, temporary success for colonists
Colonist War Aims
colonists want complete independence from England, want own autonomy
many colonists fighting because of grievances against British monarchy
closed all overseas trade in colonies, rejected colonial demands, naval blockade of colonial ports
Wartime Society
Loyalists harassed by colonists
more Native American alliances forming
call for gender equality, role of women evolving
Second Continental Congress, 1775
more radical
last attempt to reconcile with British with Olive Branch Petition
raised money to create own army and navy

1776: Declaration of Independence signed
Battle of Saratoga
= turning point of war/
Articles of Confederation
1781: British surrender at Yorktown
1783: British recognize American independence through
Treaty of Paris
Northwest Ordinance
from Articles of Confederation
establishes government powers but lacks power to enforce federal will on the states
written with a sense of fear of government power = forms weak national government
lack of unity and national identity among the states
weak executive branch
first President is John Hancock but has no real duties
convinced French government to declare war on England and openly aid Americans, French assistance was major role in American victory, French motivated to weaken British Empire
settlement between England and US, US formally gains independence and ownership of land
provided creation of territorial governments and new states, first federal limitation on slavery: slavery banned North of Ohio River & east of Mississippi River
Shay's Rebellion, 1786
riots in demand for paper money, tax relief, relocation of capital
members of legislature denounce Shay and followers as rebels, put down by army
tipping point to reform Articles of Confederation
shows need for strong federal government
motivates delegates to attend

Constitutional Convention

to reform and avoid government collapse
1787: delegates meet to amend Articles of Confederation, draft the Constitution = gives greater powers to federal govt
The Constitution
Constitutional Approaches
strict constructionist:
if Constitution does not allow it, it cannot be done
loose constructionist:
if Constitution does not prohibit it, it can be done (favor the necessary and proper clause)
necessary and proper clause/Elastic Clause:
expands power of legislative branch/Congress
Congress defines laws/amends them based on what they see as "necessary and proper"

Great Compromise:
solves legislative representation,
forms the legislative branch

= one House & one Senate
3/5s clause on slavery
separation of powers: give each branch different powers, all work in system of checks and balances
solves fear of over concentrated authority
Debating the Constitution
against strong federal govt
fear over concentrated power
favor decentralized government
support Articles of Confederation
Republic Party emerges
fear anarchy and chaos
favor strong central govt
need to control the masses
favored separation of Church and state
Federalist Party emerges, Federalists more consolidated and take over first 12 years of American presidency
Federalist Consolidation
1791: National Bank of the United States
1794: Whiskey Rebellion
1795: Jay's Treaty, Pickney's Treaty
1796: Washington's Farewell Address, John Adams elected, XYZ Affair
1798: Alien and Sedition Acts, Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions, Quasi War
1789: George Washington inaugurated as First President
1791: Bill of Rights enacted
Hamilton's campaign to boost the national economy; Hamilton (Federalist & loose constructionist) promoted economic growth, want to strengthen domestically
farmers challenge federal authority, refuse to pay whiskey task and terrorize tax collectors
rebellion put down by federal troops
won loyalty of the people to federal govt, federal govt negotiates with people later
economic agreement, to maintain peace with England
agreement with Spain, navigation of Mississippi River & access to New Orleans port
Washington warns about foreign entanglements
American advisers sent to negotiate with France to stabilize relations
France demanded a loan and bribe before negotiations could begin
Americans denied, publicized French action
enraged at France, more support for Federalists, US in undeclared war with France
goal: centralize power, maintain govt stability, silence opposition
Alien Act: barriers to foreigners who want to be American citizens
Sedition Act: government can prosecute rebels
grants right to states to nullify laws if federal govt exceed their power
US cut off trade with France, US vessels capture French armed ships, American naval victories against France
Americans begin cooperating with British & become allies against France
France conciliates with US before problem increases
new treaty created between US & France to improve relations
The Jefferson Presidency, 1800-1808
Election of 1800:
Federalists lose popularity, tie between Burr & Jefferson, Hamilton (although a Federalist) sways votes to Jefferson, Burr hates Hamilton
republicanism ideals
believed in virtuous, educated masses
distrusted urban areas
strict Constructionist and anti-Federalist, favored states rights & limiting federal govt power
The Louisiana Purchase, 1803
US want New Orleans from France to protect from Spanish holdings
US get all western land from France for $15 million, but not as far out to Pacific Ocean
Jefferson taking loose constructionist approach
removes foreign pressure from US borders
strengthens Jefferson's vision of farm-based nation
Lewis & Clark expedition, 1804:
navigate out to western Pacific coast = inspires US to expand
The Marshall Court
Chief Justice John Marshall believed strong central govt best served the nation (Federalist), he opposed states' rights
defined how govt worked under the Constitution & the judicial branch's powers
Marbury v. Madison, 1803
Marbury was promised a hob from Adams, but Jefferson didn't give him one = Marbury sues Jefferson
Supreme Court ruling: Court cannot rule on the case, so Marbury is right, but Court believes the work of a previous President must be done first
Judicial Review:
grants Supreme Court the authority to determine constitutionality of laws = strengthens judicial branch = ability to overrule other 2 branches of govt
The War of 1812
British impressment
, British support of Natives in US,
War Hawks

victory @ Battle of New Orleans, Andrew Jackson seen as war hero
Treaty of Ghent ends war
end of Federalist Party
Hartford Convention

US respected by other nations, US more economically sufficient, land expansion, Natives no longer protected by British & give up their land
British raid American ships and take British-born Americans back to Britain = infuriates US =
Embargo Act
(restrict US trade with Europe = damages US economy) and
Nonintercourse Act
(bans US trade with Britain & France)
favored war in Congress
Federalists attempt secession because war & Embargo Act harmed them
The Monroe Presidency, 1817-1825
Federalist power fading
Tariff of 1816
Panic of 1819
Era of Good Feelings
increasing American nationalism, established national identity
protects American industry,
leads to more internal and domestic consumers
lack of bank credit = first economic recession,
defeats sense of American infallibility
little political opposition and conflict at this time
American System, 1816
worked for internal improvement through transportation projects
Clay believed that transportation = promote trade & connectivity throughout the country
tariffs to protect domestic industries and fund internal improvements
South benefited the least from the American System, because still depended on agricultural & slave labor
McCulloch v. Maryland, 1819
Maryland wants to tax the 2nd National Bank, Bank says it cannot be taxed because it is a federal institution
Marshall Court establishes that Congress has the power to establish a national bank, as implied by the powers of the Constitution
activates the Elastic/Necessary and Proper Clause
establishes constitutionality of the National Bank
want Native American lands
economic pressures
improved transportation, growing need for innerconnectivity
open immigration policies, invite immigrants into America
Missouri Compromise, 1820
to preserve balance between free vs. slave state
Maine = free
Missouri = slave
The Monroe Doctrine, 1823
return of European monarchs, want to reestablish colonial territories, US thinks they are threatened to being taken by European monarchs

Monroe issues independent statement prohibiting future colonization, protects the US, declares no foreign interference allowed in Western Hemisphere
successful because of power of the British navy

asserts American independence, neutrality, nationalism, & sovereignty from Europe
US linked with Britain through trade, British military protects US to protect British trade with US so other nations cannot take over US & threaten British trade opportunities
The Jackson Presidency, 1828-1836
"people's President", belief in the common man, represented the interests of the public
supported small federal government
strict Constructionist
Corrupt Bargain
1824: Clay swings votes to Adams, Adam beats Jackson in election
1828: birth of modern politics
personal attacks on campaigns
revival of two-party system
Jackson = Democrat, President for the people
Extended Suffrage
make more democratic, involved common masses in politics
dropped land & religious restrictions = more people can vote
public nominates candidates & state electors
rise of 3rd parties, involvement of new voters
people can have govt jobs
govt more responsive to its people, loyalty to President, more public involvement
Indian Removal Act,
Jackson's forced removal of Native Americans from the US
Trail of Tears
Worchester v. Georgia:
Court decides Cherokees should be protected
Jackson ignores Court's decision, continues to remove Indians anyways
Nullification Crisis, 1832
John Calhoun: theory that state has right to ignore federal law if law is harmful to the state
nullifies two federal tariffs in South Carolina
Jackson prepares for military action, passes
Force Bill
, issues
Proclamation to the People of South Carolina
Congress lowers tariffs
South Carolina backs down
Jackson seen as strong President
recruiting troops to fight against South Carolina
declares nullification and disunion as treason, treason = punishable by death
Bank Veto, 1832
Jackson does not support the National Bank, believes Elastic Clause did not give legitimate permission to Congress to be established, sees Bank = source of corruption
this idea is supported by the masses
Jackson withdraws federal money from the Bank, deposits money to state banks/pet banks
economic depression from pet banks
creation of Whig party
Harrison (Republican) in office, blamed for economic collapse
Southern States Rights:
Jackson issues proclamation that prohibits abolitionists from spreading anti-slavery propaganda through the postal service
Jackson seen as oppressive and abusing the executive veto
Southern Society, 1816-1860
Tobacco and Cotton
cotton = most important cash crop of the South
rise of cotton due to: tobacco prices unstable, exhausted the land, invention of cotton gin, tobacco cultivation moving more west & declining in the South
textile industry in England = high demand for cotton
Planter Aristocracy
more small farmers than wealthy planters
slave-owning whites had power and influence
Slave Society
population increase = increase in slave labor force
sometimes slaves bought their way out of freedom, or were set free
some blacks were prosperous, some lived in poverty
most slaves adapted to oppressive conditions and created separate African American culture
slave revolts were rare, more slave resistance
1820s Population Increase
improvement in public health
high birth rate
more immigration from Europe
urban growth

German and Irish immigration
Germany: economic failure, poverty, collapse of revolution
immigrants went into agricultural labor
Ireland: oppressed by England, potato famine, starvation and disease
immigrants went into industrial labor
: defense of Native-born people, hostile towards immigrants
1825: Erie Canal completed
strengthened political and commercial ties with other industrial cities
more canal building
wide use of steamboats
rivers used as transportation routes
opened West for settlement
Railroads: consolidated short lines into extensive long lines

connected Midwest to markets in the east
had least impact on the South
Women in Society
cult of domesticity:
women's role limited to the home, served as mothers, were viewed as below men
Republican Motherhood:
belief that women had an important role as wives and mothers to educate their children about the American republic and to raise them to be virtuous citizens
Republican Mothers should be concerned with domestic and religious affairs
The Lowell System
labor force heavily reliant on young, unmarried women and children
used to increase efficiency and productivity
eventually declines: difficult to maintain work standard, wages declined, poor conditions
move to rely on Irish immigrants for labor
The New America, 1789-1824
Social Movements of
the 1840s
Women's Movement
led by middle-class women, advocated for legal and educational rights, closely linked to anti-slavery and temperance movements, mainly occurred in the Northeast & Midwest
Seneca Falls Convention:
called for women's rights in suffrage, retain property after marriage, divorce and child custody rights, equal educational opportunities
issued the
"Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions":
proposed men and women as equal
The Second Great
wave of religious enthusiasm
made Americans aware of moral issues posed by slavery
American Colonization Society:
worked to return freed slaves to Africa, primarily led by middle-class
William Lloyd Garrison:
editor of radical abolitionist newspaper
The Liberator
, supported women's rights, founder of the American Anti-Slavery Society, called for emancipation of the slaves
Frederick Douglass:
black abolitionist
philosophical and literary movement
live simple lives
embrace truths found in nature and personal emotion
Emerson & Thoreau
Cultural Advances
rise of patriotism
higher value of personal morals
newspapers flourished
more state-level action taken to fund public education: with higher taxes, compulsory school laws, etc.
Hudson River School:
group of artists painting landscapes to emphasize America's natural beauty, America's first coherent school of art
Manifest Destiny
westward expansion of the US
nationalism, aims for social reform, expanding boundaries, gained public support
independent republic until 1845, Jackson hesitant to add Texas (another slave state) into the Union
dispute over land between Britain and US
49th parallel:
boundary of Oregon compromised between US and Britain
Mexican American War, 1846-1848
Polk wanted New Mexico/Texas/California region
justified by claiming that Mexican troops illegally entered US territory and killed US soldiers, but Polk instigated conflict
drained valuable resources
Whigs opposed the Mexican War
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo:
agreement between US & Mexico
US gets California & Texas territory, assumes financial payments, US must officially recognize Texan border
Wilmot Proviso:
prohibited slavery in the new Mexican territory
beginnings of racial tension over slavery
never became federal law, but was endorsed by legislatures
Divides Over Slavery
Kansas-Nebraska Act, 1854
deciding if Kansas and Nebraska are free or slave states
determined by
popular sovereignty:
state gets to decide themselves if they are free or slave
repeals Missouri Compromise
allowed for the expansion of slavery beyond Southern states
creation of the Republican Party
The Dred Scott Case, 1857
Scott, a former slave, master dies, so Scott claims he is now free
ruling: Scott was not a citizen (slaves = property) so his case was invalid, Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional because the Court believed federal govt had no authority to rule on people's possession of their property (slave)
invalidated Missouri Compromise
widened gap between North and South
The Election of 1860
Lincoln vs. Douglas
Lincoln & Republican Party appeal to free soilers
Freesoiler Party
: against expansion of slavery
Democratic Party votes split amongst 3 candidates, Republican Party votes remain unified under Lincoln as one candidate
Republican platform attracted:
farmers; land for homesteaders
westerners; Pacific Railway Act
freesoilers; no slavery expansion
Northern manufacturers; protective trade tariffs
Lincoln wins plurality vote, not majority vote
The Civil War, 1861-1865
Southern Secession, 1860
Southern nationalism, want to dissolve the Union
establishing the Confederacy, South Carolina withdraws from the Union, 6 more states secede by 1861
1861: Jefferson Davis inaugurated as President of the Confederate States of America
Lincoln's goal: to preserve the Union
Union vs. Confederacy
more manpower
Border States
advanced industrial system
large population
better transportation & connectivity
disadvantaged for fighting in unknown Southern territory
opinions on war were divided, rose tensions
not industrially self-sufficient
relied on Europe for imports during war
deteriorated transportation system
fought defensively on own land
strong sentiment of commitment to war
Delaware, Kentucky, Maryland, West Virginia
slave states on the Union side
important to Union's success in war
economically connected to the North, Missouri & Delaware = important economic centers
acts as buffer zone between North & South
Fort Sumter, 1861
secession turns into war
Fort technically own by Union, South takes it by bombarding it
Union forces lose a military strong holding
Lincoln views this as a call for war
confidence in Confederate victory
Battle of Antietam, 1962
bloodiest single day in American history
ends in a draw, but seen as Union victory
shows brutality of war
gives Republican Party more support and more seats in office
leads to
Emancipation Proclamation
French & English see clear Union victory, decide to not support the Confederacy
1863, freed slaves in the Southern rebelling states
South ignored this because they didn't see Lincoln as their President anymore
didn't actually free any slaves
strengthened Union's moral cause
Political Action During
the Civil War
Homestead Act of 1862:
gave land to people who would settle West
passed high tariffs to protect American industry
Reconstruction, 1863-1877
13th Amendment, 1865: slavery outlawed and banned
14th Amendment, 1868: citizenship given to protect former slaves, all people born in US are citizens, laws must be equal and protect everyone
first time states are held responsible and not just federal govt
15th Amendment, 1870: voting rights given to former slaves
Presidential Reconstruction,
Lincoln's 10% Plan:
believed a lenient reconstruction policy would encourage Southerners to join the Republican Party
Presidential pardons for those who took an oath of allegiance & accepted emancipation
state government reinstated when 10% of voters took loyalty oath & slavery eliminated from state constitution
Wade-Davis Bill:
saw Lincoln's plan as too lenient and made stricter plans, made 50% of voters take loyalty oath, only non Confederates could vote,
Lincoln's pocket veto kills the plan
Johnson's Plan:
loss of voting rights for former Confederate leaders & wealthy Southerners, President has power to grant individual pardons = many former Southern leaders back in office
Johnson vetoed bill to extend powers of
Freedmen's Bureau
Civil Rights Bill
early welfare agency, provides, food/shelter for those destitute by war (white & black), many gains in education
nullified black codes & granted citizenship
Congressional/Radical Republic Reconstruction, 1866-1872
harsh on Southern whites, want to protect free blacks, reject Johnson's plans
override Johnson's vetoes, extend Freedman's Bureau, pass Civil Rights Act = citizenship for all blacks
Reconstruction Acts, 1867:
5 military districts in South to be occupied by federal troops, states must pass 14th Amendment to be readmitted into Union
Johnson's Impeachment, 1868
Congress passes
Tenure in Office Act:
when a President is removed, Cabinet members can still keep their positions
meant to protect Republican's in Johnson's Cabinet
Johnson dismisses Stanton = House impeaches Johnson
Johnson one vote short of being removed
shows tensions between President and Congress
Redeemer/Southern Reconstruction, 1872-1877
run by Southern Conservative Democrats
favored state's rights, limit funds for social programs, white supremacy, rise of KKK
Compromise of 1877
Hayes elected in 1876
Tilden wins popular vote but not electoral vote, Hayes wins
ends federal support for Southern Republicans = dangerous for Southern blacks
supported building a transcontinental railroad
removed remaining troops from Southern states = leaves blacks in the South unprotected
end of Reconstruction period
Plessy v. Ferguson, 1896
dispute over legality of segregated railroad cars
legalized segregation with "separate but equal"
established "separate but equal" public facilities for blacks
boosted racial attitudes
beginning of
Jim Crow laws:
laws that promoted segregation, excluded blacks, neglected black rights
Booker T. Washington
Atlanta Compromise speech, 1895:
proposed blacks and whites agree to benefit from each other, encouraged blacks to establish a strong economic foundation instead of a violent uprising, whites should help former slaves
supported black economic self-help/accommodation to white society/racial solidarity
Western Expansion, 1865-1900
Transcontinental Railroad:
first completed in 1869, constructed by Irish & Chinese workers, decreased buffalo population, brought farmers/miners/cattlemen to the West, more farms and range-fed cattle
Indian civilizations in the West became a part of the Hispanic caste system
Plains Indians:
had own functioning civilization, shared deep relationship with and valued nature, were aggressive warriors, Sioux = most powerful tribe in Missouri River Valley, weren't united as one force, out manned and out gunned by whites
Western Settlers
tension with Hispanic population:
Anglo Americans took the higher paying jobs, had conflicts over land control, declined Hispanic authority, created a Hispanic impoverished working class
Western lifestyle = need for self-sufficiency
limited class mobility, uneven wealth distribution among the classes, working class = highly diverse, immigrants got worse jobs, powerful corporations begin to emerge and control industries
Mining boom:
first economic boom in the west, source of mineral wealth, miners who got wealthy usually came from poor rural backgrounds
Romanticizing the West:
a free frontier, free-spirited, independent, more opportunity
Native American Policy
Federal response:
govt aimed to limit Native American sovereignty, regarded tribes as independent nations
Concentration Policy:
divide the tribes make them easier to control, allowed govt to relocate Indians so that whites could take most desirable lands
1867: change from Concentration Policy to relocating all Plains Indians into reservations that were poorly administered by govt
1887 Dawes Act
Indian Wars between tribes & white settlers
1890 Battle of Wounded Knee
gradual elimination of tribal ownership of land
giving Indians land from reservations = land already set aside for them
Natives now legally bound to their land
Natives lose half of their land
forced assimilation
whites attack and kill many Natives in fear that a Native American ceremony would cause an uprising
The Frontier
1890: report that the frontier line was nonexistent, closing of the frontier
Frederick Jackson Turner's "The Significance of the Frontier in American History":
existence of cheap unsettled land made American society more democratic, defined American spirit & the American West, allowed for new opportunities (esp. for immigrants), perpetuated American nationalism & individualism, frontier had no hereditary aristocracy, creates new American identity
The Gilded Age, 1865-1900
vertical integration & horizontal integration
big businesses and trusts control the economy
More corporate consolidation:
built large factories, functioned by machines & unskilled workers, used Taylorism/scientific management to increase factory production & lower labor costs, used railroads to develop national markets for their goods
1895 World's Columbian Exposition
self-made man
company controls both the production & distribution
one company gains control over other companies that produce the same product
showcased America's industrial development
idea of responsible for own success must work hard to prosper, advocated by Horatio Alger
Labor & Labor Unions
labor force mainly made up of women, children, immigrants
machines increasingly replaced skilled workers
economy dominated by large businesses & companies
corporations developed national markets for their goods
large companies dominated politics
economy protected investors with patents
Causes of industrialization:
Steam Revolution
Railroad industry fueled the economy, encouraged financial investment, opened the West, contributed to development of other industries, changed concept of time, established connectivity, had both a philosophical & functional impact
technological innovations
industries had to work together to create inventions
lots of unskilled labor access and capital (some people were wealthier than govt)
new talented group of businessmen
population increase = growing market
govt supported big businesses
abundant natural resources
Laissez faire:
no govt interference in business, pro-free market
Social Darwinism:
survival of the fittest, integrated into economics
Protestant/Puritan work ethic:
self-made man, work hard and you can accomplish anything, strongly believed by working class, pursue the American dream
economy dominated by pools & trusts
US becomes largest iron & steel producer
Wall Street:
center of financial industry & capitalism
Reorganization of work:
advocated by Frederick Taylor, new work techniques & standardization for efficiency
Gospel of Wealth:
$ does not mean bad, $ = sign of God's approval/Christian duty to accumulate wealth, should not help the poor
no regulations in child labor, received low wages
Carnegie's "On Wealth":
wealthy should act as trustees to the poor and help them
Knights of Labor
became widely popular
open-membership policy
catered to unskilled laborers
open to women, blacks, immigrants
wanted equal pay for men & women, safer work place, shorter hours
wanted to create cooperative society where laborers owned the industries they worked in
blamed for
Haymarket Square riot
, seen as anarchists
starts as workers' meeting then turns into riot, conflict between laborers and police, newspapers were pro-business
Industrial Workers of
the World
one big workers union
called for labor organization, for workers to recognize their own power in how they are the base to support the capitalist system
said all industrial workers should be under one union
embraced class conflict with violent means
organization collapsed during WWI
American Federation of Labor
led by Samuel Gompers
catered to the skilled worker
unionized with other skilled laborers
promoted right to collectively bargain
represented workers in matters of national legislation to contrast with business owners representation
believed in need for equal footing between owners and workers
mediate disputes between management & labor
promoted closed shops: union workers hired must remain in union to remain employed
The Pullman Strike, 1894
Pullman Palace Car Company cut wages = strike
halted American railroad commerce
President Cleveland sent out federal troops to crush the strike
1880s: new wave of immigrants from southern & eastern Europe
mainly settled in large cities in the Northeast & Midwest
The Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882
first law in American history to exclude a group from America because of ethnicity
relations with Chinese immigrants were initially fine, Chinese viewed as skilled and talented
increasing job competition between whites and Chinese
prohibited immigration of Chinese people to America
strong support for law from working-class Americans who felt threatened by Chinese competition
Nativist Opposition
opposed immigrants because of their different languages & cultural traditions, job competition & took away jobs because immigrants willing to work for low wages
The Progressive Era, 1890-1917
Agrarian Discontent
belief that railroad industry, big businesses, large corporations were exploiting farmers
deflating monetary policy on gold hurt farmers
The Populist Party
called for more govt policies that supported agricultural production
rejected laissez-faire
attempted to unite discontent farmers & improve their economic conditions
increase money supply by using silver currency: "Free Silver"
used Interstate Commerce Act of 1887 to regulate railroads and protect small consumers
organized cooperative marketing groups
supported candidacy of
William Jennings Bryan
favored the people & Free Silver, fusion of Populists & Democrats, Democratic Party leader in 1896 election, powerful politician, youngest candidate for a major Party
silver = currency of the people & liberation
gold = currency of oppression & exploitation
Failure of the Populist Party
Western & Southern farmers did not agree on political strategies
racism prevented blacks & whites from working together
dramatic increases in urban population = higher prices for agricultural products
discovery of gold in the West = more access to credit
Democratic Party absorbed many Populist ideas
William Jennings Bryan lost to McKinley (Republican)
The Progressives
responses to problems of the Gilded Age
primarily middle-class reformers concerned with urban & consumer issues, believed govt should actively help the public, want to use govt power to regulate industrial production & improve labor conditions, rejected Social Darwinism, argued that cooperation = best way to improve society
Democratization of politics: direct election of senators, women's suffrage
Reform of local govt: make govt more responsive to public, weaken political machines & Boss Rule
Regulation of big business: child labor & antitrust laws, passage of Pure Food & Drug Act
Progressive Amendments
16th: Congress has power to lay & collect income taxes
17th: senators elected by popular vote by the people
18th: prohibition of alcohol
19th: women could vote
The Muckrakers
investigative reporters who promoted social and political reforms by exposing corruption & urban problems, leading critics of urban bosses & corporate leaders
reached a large audience through mass-circulation newspapers & magazines
Upton Sinclair:
exposed abuses of meatpacking industry
The Jungle
: meant to expose mistreatment of immigrant workers, but also showed dangerous conditions of meatpacking industry
encouraged Congress to pass Meat Inspection Act and Pure Food and Drug Act
Jacob Riis:
journalist and photographer, images showed human face to poverty & despair of immigrants in New York City
Ida Tarbell:
leading female muckraker, criticized Standard Oil Company and its abuse of trusts

Theodore Roosevelt's Presidency, 1900-1908
opposed by Platt, tried to weaken by remove Roosevelt as New York Governor and instead Roosevelt made McKinley's Vice President
hands on, confident, lively, outdoorsman, strong interventionist
addressed environment conservation, meatpacking industry, consolidation in railroad industry, trust busting
1902 Square Deal:
control of corporations, consumer protection, conserve natural resources, believed govt should help achieve economic & social justice
coal workers on strike
Roosevelt wants to negotiate with workers but they refuse
Roosevelt threatens o use federal troops to seize mines as federal operation = workers agree to negotiate
first time a President sides with laborers instead of using military action right away to suppress strikes
Wilson's Presidency,
Progressive Reform Issues
At the time:
uneven wealth distribution
more urbanization
govt controlled by corporate interest
want more govt intervention to help the public
election reform
restrict corporate power
education, environment, moral reform
workplace & housing improvements
Election of 1912:
Roosevelt creates own Progressive Party = Republican votes are split & victory goes to Democratic Wilson
strong reformer, against tariffs/banking issues/trusts
did not support antilynching bills, Congress hesitant to intervene in state law
enacted labor reform & antitrust legislation
believed in self-determination: repeals Panama Canal Tolls Act = less control for US & more control for Panama
1913 Federal Reserve Act:
established system of district banks coordinated by a central board
increases money flow
made currency & credit more flexible
Progressive Reforms
Women's Suffrage
Jane Addams: Hull House to help the urban poor & immigrant families to adapt, provided housing to working mothers, cared for their children = beneficial to working class
frontier life = greater equality for women
women owned businesses = economic power = motivation for women to settle out West
19th Amendment granting women's right to vote passed in 1920
Women' Christian Temperance Union
advocated for moral responsibility to improve society through prohibition
Women's Work
Dorothea Dix:
work with mentally ill
Ida B. Wells:
African American civil rights &women's rights advocate, antilynching movement
women worked for:
passage of child labor legislation
limit working hours of women and children
The Workplace
more women working outside of the home
female-specified jobs: teachers, social workers, garment workers, etc.
African American Reform
W.E.B. Du Bois:
most influential advocate of full political, economic, and social equality for blacks
advocated for integration, not black separatism; encouraged blacks to succeed & be involved in social change
founded the NAACP
focused on using the courts to achieve justice & equality
KKK: emerges during 1865
The Birth of a Nation
film depicted KKK as heroic = controversial
Causes of American Imperialism
stories published by
yellow journalists:
exaggerated stories to appeal to audience & get stories to sell
Social Darwinism & survival of the fittest
duty to civilize others
The Spanish American War, 1898
US ship Maine sunk in Havana Harbor
perpetuated by yellow journalism in newspapers, strong call for American intervention because of Huerta's violent anti-American beliefs
William Randolph Hearst:
dominated newspaper publications, articles told of Huerta's violent regime & threats to the US
US has huge corporate investments in Mexico
revolution = new leader, new leader killed by Huerta = massive migration to US
Wilson supports arms sales to 2 of Huerta's rivals : Carranza & Villa
US stops German arms sales to Huerta by seizing port = US-German tensions rise
Germany & US work out conflict = Huerta Regime ends, Carranza = new leader
Carranza angered with excess US intervention, Villa tries to spark war between Carranza & US = Villa kills US citizens in Mexico & tries to blame Carranza
US sends troops to Mexico = failure to capture Villa
US caught up in emerging WWI conflict, withdraws from Mexico
The Roosevelt Corollary,
America intervenes instead of Europe
Caribbean = "Yankee Lake"
Bad Neighbor Policy:
repeated US intervention in Central & South America
US ts as police force in Yankee Lake =
secures region for US interest
China's Open Door
Policy, 1899
European powers beginning to establish spheres of influence in China
US determined to protect US commercial interests
policy for open access to China for protection of American investment & commercial interests
World War I, 1915-1918
American Neutrality
Wilson issues proclamation of neutrality, want to avoid European entanglement, insist aggressors respect American neutrality in the seas
1915: American ship Lusitania sunk by Germany
Wilson & US citizens still trying to avoid war
1917: Germany launches campaign of unrestricted submarine warfare
1917 Zimmerman Telegram:
US intercepts German note, Germany told Mexico to start war with US to keep US out of European war & Germany will help Mexico gain back Texas and New Mexico
US enters WWI
The Black Migration
Southern blacks facing poverty & discrimination because of Jim Crow laws
more labor demand in North during war time
The Great Migration:
blacks migrate to urban centers in the North
The War At Home
encouraging citizens to contribute to the war effort
jobs bed by women & immigrants
Committee on Public Information:
used propaganda to arouse public support for the war
American belief that Germany was a barbaric nation
general sentiment of excitement about the war
Post War Peace
1918 Wilson's Fourteen Points:
part of Treaty of Versailles, wanted open diplomacy, freedom of the seas, creation of international organization to preserve peace & security (
League of Nations
), national self-determination
Treaty of Versailles:
Europe wants revenge & compensation
Congress rejects Treaty of Versailles: Wilson & Lodge unable to compromise, too harsh on Germany, Britain & France would benefit at US's expense, US would be caught in international conflict and future wars
The Red Scare
fear of anarchists, communists, and immigrants in the US
1918: Espionage & Sedition Acts passed
1919 Bolshevik Revolution:
led by Lenin, Bolsheviks overthrew czar and took over govt
widespread post war labor strikes in America
competition between classes & races
Palmer Raids:
broke into buildings to deport & penalize suspected anarchists & communists to eliminate threats to US power
The Roaring Twenties
Causes of Prosperity
US only strong country let after WWI
industrial expansion & technology innovation: construction, automobile, raw materials, radios, computers
US steel = America's largest corporation
industries consolidated, corporates reorganize, adopt modern administrative system = easier to expand the company & manage profits
other industries attempt to stabilize themselves through cooperation
Trade Association: encourage coordination in production & marketing techniques
increasing maldistribution of wealth, people purchasing power
better standard of living
improved work conditions
welfare capitalism: employers using parental techniques to avoid labor unrest & growth of unions
companies provide benefits & establish committees for laborers to voice grievances rather than using unions
Status of Labor
farmers were least prosperous, agricultural prices falling
rapid growth of industrial technology made labor unneeded = high unemployment
unions: generally conservative, failed to adapt to realities of modern economy, more in favor of peaceful cooperation instead of strikes
women working in low paying jobs
impacts of welfare capitalism:
brought workers economic benefits, but lacked real control
banned unions
survived as long as industries prospered
workers receive wage increases at slower rate
working class remained at minimal level with little power
Republican Politics
Republican presidents: favored tax cuts for wealthy citizens, pro-business
1921 Washington Naval Conference:
met to restrain naval arms race among US, Britain, France, Italy, and Japan
1924 Dawes Plan:
US grants private loans to Germany to pay war reparations
1928 Kellogg-Briand Pact: ruled
out war as instrument of foreign policy = failure
The Lost Generation:
era of disenchanted artists that made work isolated from corruption & ugliness of modern day society, criticized middle-class materialism & conformity
Sinclair Lewis, F. Scott Fitzgerald
popular among youth, symbolized desire to break from tradition
rise of sports & athletes, led by baseball
movies = very popular
use of advertising & mass marketing to fuel consumer demand
newspapers & mass circulated magazines to reach a wide audience
radio & film used for mass communication
Religious Fundamentalism
defended traditional religion,

anti-liberal & anti-secular movement
1925 Scopes Trial:
Scopes charged for teaching about evolution in school
shows cultural conflict of the 20s between fundamentalism and modernism
KKK expanded during the 20s
1924 National Origins Act:
purpose was to use quotas to restrict newcomers from Southern & Eastern Europe
decrease in # of European immigrants
more Mexicans & Puerto Ricans migrating to US, neither groups faced restrictive immigration
Struggle for Equality
African Americans
The Harlem Renaissance:
new black urban culture, black artists trying to show richness of their heritage & prove their race was worthy of respect = black pride
Marcus Garvey:
black pride, black nationalism, committed to idea that Black Americans should return to Africa
symbolized new freedom, rebellion of traditional expectations of women
women did not receive equal pay, continued to face discrimination, heavily depended on men, remained powerless
most married women did not seek employment outside the home
Margaret Sanger:
openly championed birth control for women
Decline of the feminist movement:
inability of women's groups to agree on goals, decline of Progressive reform movement
The Great Depression, 1929
false sense of prosperity
speculation & overleverage
decline in world trade
bank failures
lack of available credit
high unemployment
lowered consumerism
removal of Gold Standard & Currency values
Hawley-Smoot tariff
income taxes increased
Hoover's Economic Policies
believed that the economic recovery of the US depended on the business community
emphasized importance of private charities
supported federal loans to private businesses & state govts
established the Reconstruction Finance Corporation
Bonus Army
1932 WWI veterans march to Washington DC
demanded Congress pay them their promised bonus from serving in war
Hoover used force & sends troops to suppress the march
FDR's Presidency,
Election of 1932:
last election with major Party realignment
former Republicans now supporting
Democratic Party
modern day liberals & conservatives
advocated for Democratic Party by connecting with the people, believed in need of people's support for govt
provided new sense of hope among the people
promised a New Deal and reform
enacted programs to help the working class, seen as their hero
Relief, Recovery, Reform
favored direct federal relief to individuals
wanted to restructure American capitalism
funded public works programs to revive economy
Roosevelt's First
Hundred Days
quickly implementing economic reforms
Civilian Conservation Corps, National Recovery Administration, Agricultural Adjustment Act, Tennessee Valley Authority
restored public confidence in banking system by closing all banks
created new jobs to reduce unemployment
raised farm prices to restrict agricultural production
provided mortgage support
1933 Agricultural Adjustment Act:
paid farmers to reduce production and raise prices, govt trying to balance supply vs. demand
disrupted food distribution system, declared unconstitutional
1933 National Industrial Recovery Act:
profits for business by allowing them to regulate themselves, gives workers right to organize
ruled unconstitutional by Supreme Court, sees govt as over stepping authority & interfering in labor
1933 Civilian Conservation Corps:
provided jobs for unemployed young men, directly putting people to work
1935 Social Security Act:
federal pension system funded by taxes
no payouts made until 1942 because not enough money during the Great Depression still
1935 Wagner Act/National Labor Relations Act:
protects right to unionize, forms National Labor Relations Board
increase in labor union membership
New Deal actions did not directly confront black segregation issues =
no major action on civil rights
Court Packing
Supreme Court declared many of FDR's programs unconstitutional
Court previously dominated by Republicans
FDR packs courts with Democratic justices to replace retired/passed away justices to get his reform programs approved
big mistake, FDR accused of breaking checks & balances, acting like a dictator
restructured American capitalism
made federal govt more proactive and involved
partially successful in repairing economy & decreasing unemployment, but did not completely end Depression
emergence of Democratic Party as major party
achieved fairer distribution of income
did not directly confront racial injustice
programs were wasteful, only temporary solution to unemployment, increased national debt, FDR too much like dictator, WWII ended Great Depression & not New Deal
Labor & Union Recognition
Congress of Industrial Organizations:
organized unskilled & semiskilled factory workers in basic manufacturing industries, led by John L. Lewis
American Federation of Labor:
split in 1935, majority of AFL leaders refused to grant charters to unions
AFL favored organization of workers according to their skills & trades
CIO favored organization of all workers in a particular industry
Hoovervilles, many Americans displaced, mass migration of citizens searching for work, many blacks moving to urban centers in North in search for work
New Democratic coalition:
includes white Southerners, African Americans, ethnic minorities, Union members
The New Deal
World War II, 1941-1945
American Response to War
1932 Stimson Doctrine:
Japanese invaded & conquered Manchuria, US declared it would not recognize the Japanese occupation, lack of US action = marked failure of collective security
Neutrality Acts:
expressions of US commitment to isolationism
1941 Lend Lease Act:
Roosevelt authorized sale of surplus military equipment to the Allies, lend weapons until they have money to repay back, used to primarily help Britain & Soviet Union resist Germany
Wartime Military
military spending revived US economy
less unemployment
end of Great Depression
Office of Price Administration:
established nationwide rationing system for consumer goods in time of war
Social Changes on the Homefront
African Americans:
Second Great Migration to urban areas in the North, Roosevelt issued executive order to ban discrimination in defense industries
Rosie the Riveter, women joining industrial work during WWII
Japanese Americans:
faced internment, seen as potential security threat to US
Korematsu v. United States:
ruled Japanese internment as constitutional in times of war
American Diplomacy
more US intervention in Latin America, to combat spread of Communism
Philippine Islands: fought US imperialism
Big Three:
Roosevelt, Churchill, Stalin
demanded unconditional surrender of Germany and Japan
1945 Yalta Conference:
Big Three try to decide what to do with Germany & Poland = Germany split into zones of occupation
The Cold War, 1945-1989
containment, as advocated by George Kennan
1947 Truman Doctrine:
asks Congress to economically support Greece & Turkey, establishes US as leaders of the free world
1947 Marshall Plan:
US aiding the repair of European economies to prevent spread of Communism
1949 NATO:
alliance between US & Western European powers, to attack one is to attack all, seen as military threat to Soviets & Eastern European powers
Warsaw Pact formed in response
1948 Berlin Airlift:
Soviets cut off Western land access to Western Berlin out of fear of German invasion
Truman sends in airlift of food & supplies to Berlin = success of containment
American Policy
The Vietnam War, 1946-1963
France intervening in Vietnam but couldn't afford to stay, so US takes their place
Geneva Conference:
partitions Vietnam into North & South, plan to reunify later
US supports South under Ngo Dinh Diem
Southern Vietnamese society: newer, wealthier, more diverse, harder to control & unify
Diem backs out of reunity election, US supports out of fear that Vietnam will reunite under communist Northern leader Ho Chi Minh
North wants to reunify right away, Viet Cong (South Vietnamese rebels) over throw Diem
1964 Gulf of Tonkin resolution:
gateway for US involvement in Vietnam
US strategy:
wear out the other side
hearts and minds:
win over Vietnamese people with emotion
US forces worn out, Vietnamese people almost all opposed to Americans
North Vietnam continually funding weapons to South Vietnamese rebels through Laos & Cambodia
US can't stop war supplies from Laos & Cambodia without starting war there too
The War at Home
Domino Theory:
communism anywhere seen as threat to US
growing opposition to Vietnam war
large opposition movement among college students
Congress denied tax increase for war funding = Johnson must cut funding for Great Society programs instead
high disapproval of Johnson
America in the 60s
Keynesian Economics:
govt intervention in the marketplace & monetary policy is the best method of ensuring economic growth and stability, govt managed currency & monetary policy through controlled interest rates
US = industrial production leader
American economy quickly growing
higher standard of living
corporate consolidation
The Postwar Contract:
big industries pay laborers well so they won't arise other complaints
other businesses follow suit, industrial workers are well-paid
rise of suburbanization & consumer culture
gender roles = women's domestic role
more shifts to South & West for favorable climate
TV strongly impacts US culture = entertainment, shapes viewer's interests, establishes social norms
homogenizing and more conformity
US citizens see capitalism as best
1956 Federal Highway Act:
establishment of highway system, push from cities to suburbs
more automobile ownership
computer technology, Universal Automatic Computer (UNIVAC) =
greater processing power
hydrogen bomb in arms race against Soviets
1957 Soviets launch Sputnik: US fears of being spied on
US sees need for more govt funding in math & science education to be more advanced
antibiotics, polio vaccine =
saves many lives
pesticides, danger of DDT =
increased agricultural production
Beat Generation:
critiques conformity of society
Rock n' Roll:
rebellion from traditional music, rooted in black culture of rhythm & blues
Abstract Expressionist art:
abandoning paintings that represent reality & instead expressing their state of mind
Kennedy's Presidency, 1960-1963
symbolized breath of newness
New Frontier:
plans of domestic reform

Johnson's Presidency, 1963-1968
The Great Society:
welfare to combat increasing poverty, targeted both rural & urban areas
successful in enacting reform in Congress
reduced hunger & poverty
provided medical care & education reform
included protection of blacks
funding had to be cut for Vietnam War
Nixon's Presidency, 1968-1974
appeals for the end of Vietnam War
leaving control of war in Vietnam's hands
establishes relations with China
Arab Oil Embargo:
hurts US economy, more inflation
Carter's Presidency, 1976-1980
effective humanitarian, noneffective President
very invested in details, tried to manage everything
foreign policy:
believed US role was to be an ideal country & role model of protection for human rights
1978 Camp David Accords:
negotiating peace between Egypt & Israel
1980 Iran Hostage Crisis:

Carter unable to save hostages = lost popularity
status of economy:
unemployment, inflation (especially of gas prices), large debt
due to Vietnam War costs, rising energy & healthcare costs
The New American Right
Political Action Committees:
funded political campaigns, candidate's platform appealed to special interest groups to sponsor them
heavy financial influence, politics controlled by special interest groups
Sun Belt:
more population moving South = more representatives & Electoral College votes moving South
more conservative influence
more religious influence in politics
against taxes
Reagan's Presidency, 1980-1988
promised a strong US & hope
immediate rescue of hostages from Iran
favored little govt intervention, low taxes, pro business
trickle down theory, deregulation of industry, allow businesses to work freely, cuts to welfare benefits
dealt with high national debt
1983 SDI:
Star Wars, ups the arms race between US & Soviets, strengthens US defense
viewed Soviets as Evil Empire
Reagan Doctrine:
US will provide aid to anti-communist groups in Africa/Asia/Latin America
send weapons to Afghanistan to fight off Soviets
fall of Soviet Union
1986 Savings & Loans Crisis:
largest bank industry collapse since the Depression
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