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AP History FRQ Skillbuilding - JL

JLHS AP Boot Camp — AP History Writing Workshop
by

John Law

on 5 July 2013

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Transcript of AP History FRQ Skillbuilding - JL

AP History — Writing a Strong Essay
AP World History
APUSH
AP U.S. Government
1) Document-Based Question (DBQ)
2) Change and continuity over time (CCOT)
3) Compare and contrast (CC)
1) Document-Based Question (DBQ)
2) FRQ — Cause & Effect Analysis
3) FRQ — Compare & Contrast
1-4) FRQ
- Define
- Describe/Explain
- Graphs
AP Macroeconomics
1-3) FRQ
- Graph
- Data
- Cause & Effect
Thesis
Body Paragraphs
*Conclusion
(10 minute reading, 40 minute writing)
(40 minute writing)
(40 minute writing)
(15 minute reading, 45 minute writing)
(35 minute writing)
(35 minute writing)
- In intro paragraph
- May be multiple sentences (not recommended)
- Cannot merely restate prompt, needs to answer it
- Must take a side or present an argument
* Include 2-3 categories (outline body paragraphs)
* Include time period and location
* Grammar and spelling not crucial
AP World DBQ
AP World CCOT
AP World CC
- Explain relationship between documents & address prompt
* Skim through the documents and organize each by a certain category; i.e. "Pro feminism, con feminism; political, economic, social; pro-U.S., anti-U.S.; etc."
* Group documents of the same category together, each category then becomes one of your points in your thesis and essay
Sample thesis:
Cricket in South Asia between 1880-2005 played a political role in not only easing tensions & restrictions of caste members but allowing Pakistan & India to relieve some political tension on the playing field although not always easing tension from a religious aspect.
1) easing tensions & restrictions of caste system
2) relieving political tension between Pakistan & India
- Topic sentence, supporting details, analysis
- Analysis can be "how does this detail support my thesis"
- Chunks must be logical, true, and not made-up
- For DBQ, good place to put additional document needed
- Restate thesis
- Not mandatory, only if you have time
* Covers your bases, clarifies thesis and arguments
Body Paragraphs:

Intro Paragraph
- Historical Context or Background (1-2 sentences)
- Thesis *** MUST HAVE ***
- Topic sentence corresponds and restates points outlined in thesis
- Concrete detail: cite Document being used, brief summary of what fact(s) you're using from the document
- Analysis (CM): point-of-view POV (occasion or bias or who's not there), how does the fact support your thesis or argument
- Concluding sentence restates topic sentence
Sample body paragraph chunk:
(TS) Cricket was a helping element in somewhat pardoning political structure in India.
(CD 1) As can be seen in doc #4, where a lower-caste Hindu was allowed to be pardoned & be admitted as a member in upper-caste cricket team.
(CM 1) Reason being that although he was lower-caste, he was good, & perhaps because its a newspaper it surely promotes it.
Thesis:
Thesis:
- 2:1 category organization
i.e. 2 changes, 1 continuity or 1 change, 2 continuities
2. Analyze continuities and changes in trade networks between Africa and Eurasia from circa 300 C.E. to 1450 C.E.
You Try!
Sample thesis:
In 300, trade routes were mostly between Europe and north Africa, and they expanded southward and westward until by 1450, the also encompassed sub-saharan Africa, West Africa, and the Indian Ocean. However, one thing stayed the same: the northern coast was always involved in the trade.
1) continuity: Europe - north Africa
2) changes: expansion southward and westward
Body Paragraphs:
- Provide your own evidence from memory
- Concrete detail: paraphrase what happened in history, cite a date (or time period) and a location
- Analysis: Explain cause and effect, for a change explain why it changed, for a continuity explain why things stayed the same
Sample body paragraph chunk:
(TS) In 300 CE, African-Eurasian trade was very limited. (CD 1) There was some interaction with Mediterranean cultures — olives and other European goods were traded for African commodities such as spices and precious metals.
(CM 1) This limited interaction was mostly due to the declining Roman empire. Southern Europe was facing internal problems, and therefore was not looking outward towards trade routes with Africa.
Thesis:
- 2: 1 category organization
i.e. 2 similarities, 1 difference or 1 similarity, 2 differences

3. Compare demographic and environmental effects of the Columbian Exchange on the Americas with the Columbian Exchange's demographic and environmental effects on ONE of the following regions between 1492 and 1750:
- Africa
- Asia
- Europe
Hint: Food, people, diseases
Sample theses:
1) Between 1492 and 1750, both the Americas and Europe experienced environmental change due to an influx of newly introduced crops and foodstuffs, and demographic shifts in European migrants; whereas the indigenous population of the Americas declined, Europe's grew, and there was less environmental degradation in the already established Europe.

2) Between 1492 and 1750, Africa and America experienced similarities in introduction of new crops, movement of natives, and disease, while having differences in shift of gender population, amount of death, ethnicity change, and environment.
Body Paragraphs:
- Provide your own evidence from memory
- Concrete detail: a similar characteristic from two different civilizations or regions from the prompt
- a difference (within the same category) between the two different civilizations or regions
- Analysis: why are they the same, why are they different; is it due to a trend of the time period? due to manipulation by a greater power? due to common beliefs?

Sample Body Paragraph (thesis 2):
Africa and America both experienced the introduction of new crops. In Africa, American crops such as maize were very useful in order to sustain the population. The cheap new source of food allowed Africa to sustain its population. America received new crops and animals such as rice and chickens.
* similarity between Africa and America
You Try!
(CD - Similarity) Both regions experienced an offset in the native population as a result of the Europeans.
(CM - Why) ____________________________________ - America
(CM 2 - Why) ____________________________________ - Africa
What they had:
(CD) Both regions experienced an offset in the native population as a result of the Europeans.
(CM) In Africa, demand for slavery resulted in massive amounts of natives being shipped to America.
(CM 2) In America, the remainder of the Aztecs and Inca in Latin America were either moved or put under forced labor. In North America, smaller tribes such as the Iroquois and Algonquian were pushed off of their lands by English and Dutch settlers.
Thesis
Body Paragraphs
*Conclusion
- In intro paragraph
- Must address all aspects of prompt
- Must take a side or present an argument
* Include 2-3 categories (outline body paragraphs)
* Include time period and location
* Grammar and spelling not crucial
- Topic sentence, supporting details, analysis
- Must have outside information (prior knowledge)
- Analysis can be "what is the rationale behind this Act"
- Chunks must be logical, true, and not made-up
- Restate thesis
- Not mandatory, only if you have time
* Covers your bases, clarifies thesis and arguments
Intro Paragraph
- Historical Context or Background (1-2 sentences)
- Thesis *** MUST HAVE ***
APUSH DBQ
Thesis:
- Address prompt in context of documents and topic
- Categories not limited to major trends
In the post–Civil War United States, corporations grew significantly in number, size, and influence.
Analyze the impact of big business on the economy and politics and the responses of Americans to these
changes. Confine your answer to the period 1870 to 1900.
Sample Thesis:
From 1870 to 1900, big businesses governed by robber barons sprang up and took control of both the economy and political system. In response, the American people formed labor unions and tried to improve the plight of the poor.
1) robber barons took over economy
2) robber barons took over politics
3) response is labor union backlash
Body Paragraphs:
- Use documents to support thesis (cite documents)
- Create opportunities to add outside info (cite dates)
* Analysis focuses more on "reason behind action" as opposed to AP World "patterns and trends", less emphasis on bias and no additional doc (unless asked)
note: categories could be PERSIAN,
political and social are closely linked
Sample Body Paragraph:
In the political sphere, starting with the compromise of 1877, Hayes won an election that was heavily disputed. Robber barons came to dominate the government, particularly in the Senate (Doc D) what the elite wanted and was best for them often got passed and the poor were overlooked. However, not all the robber barons used their influence for evil, philanthropists like Carnegie and Rockefeller heavily donated to society. -- social Darwinism and (Doc E).
APUSH FRQ — Cause & Effect
APUSH FRQ — Compare & Contrast
Thesis:
- Focuses on both the cause and the result
- Categories are reasons for why, causes
Analyze the effect of the French and Indian War and its aftermath on the relationship between Great
Britain and the British colonies. Confine your response to the period from 1754 to 1776.
Sample Thesis:
Perhaps, the most notable catalyst for the American Revolution was, in fact, The French and Indian War. It's aftermath seriously affected and changed the British-American dynamic and caused the colonies to secede. Confident of their ability from the war, and greatly angered by British interventionism, the colonies resented restricted expansion and imposed acts, loathed unfair taxes, and displayed resistance, all shaping the English-American relationship and leading up to the Revolutionary War, from 1754-1776.
Thesis:
- 2:1 or 1:1 similarities vs. differences
Compare and contrast the Cold War foreign policies of TWO of the following presidents.
Harry Truman (1945–1953)
Dwight Eisenhower (1953–1961)
Richard Nixon (1969–1974)
Sample Thesis:
Dwight Eisenhower had a policy of brinksmanship, while Richard Nixon believed in a state of detente. However, both believed that Communism should be contained, and that the U.S. had to come out of the war as a victor.
Sample Body Paragraph:
(definition-elaboration) Brinksmanship was the idea of constantly putting the enemy on edge.
(CM) The use, or possession, of nuclear weapons would serve as both a threat and a deterrent to the enemy. This was known as "Mutually Armed Destruction". In addition, under Eisenhower, America was spurred on an arms race, especially when the Soviets launched Sputnik.
- leads through why Eisenhower's policies were so, what they were in response to
- does same for Nixon and highlights the differences
- Cause: Confidence, anger at British interventionism
- Result: The American Revolution - War
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