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P1 Development through the life stages

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on 8 November 2013

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Transcript of P1 Development through the life stages

Chloe Houselander
P1
Development through
the life stages.
Conception & Pregnancy
Infancy
0-3 years
Childhood
4-9 years

Adolescence
10-18 years

Adulthood
18-65 years

Older adulthood
65+ years

Conception, also known as
fertilisation, is the fusing of
two gametes (sex cells). This
creates an embryo, which will
eventually develop into a baby.
Conception takes place when a
single egg is released into the
mothers fallopian tubes, this process
is known as ovulation. When a sperm
cell bonds with the egg, this initiates
the development of the new cell or embryo.
Pregnancy is the nine month long process in which a newly developed embryo will grow and transform into a foetus (baby). In only nine months the microscopic ball of cells will transform from an embryo to a baby. Rapidly developing throughout the first few months of pregnancy.
-At one month pregnant, the baby is still an embryo. It is primarily made up of two layers of which all organs and body parts will develop from.
-At two months pregnant, the baby is around the size of a kidney bean. At this stage the baby will move around alot and fingers will start to develop, although they will be slightly webbed.
- At four months pregnant, the baby will be around 5.5 inches long and their bones will begin to form their skeleton.
- At six months pregnant, the baby will begin putting on weight and skin will become smooth and less wrinkly, a few weeks later at around seven months, the baby can open and close their fully developed eyes.
-At eight months pregnant the baby has put on sufficient weight and lungs will be well developed.
-At nine months the baby is due, (s)he will be fully developed and ready for life outside the womb.
Physical development during infancy starts as soon as the baby is born. Every baby is born with three primative reflexes; these are known as the grasping reflex - a newborn baby will grasp an object with their hands or feet when it touches their palm, the rooting reflex - if you stroke a babies cheek they will turn their head in search for food, and the diving reflex - if a newborn baby is placed underwater the water cannot enter their lungs, this is due to their voicebox not being fully developed and this reflex stops after a few months. Newborns brains are not fully developed but they are able to identify different tastes and recognise scent of their mother/guardian.
A baby's intellectual development can differ with each child, some develop faster than others. Piaget's theory states that you do not only learn from your environment and surroundings, but you learn more as you mature. He argues that ''we do not just simply learn as we grow older, we also develop more useful ways of thinking''. An example of this theory would be things like learning to talk. You need to mature, grown and experience this skill to learn it.
It is during infancy that emotional development is of paramount importance. Attachments made during infancy are usually the strongest and longest relationships throughout life, for example the attachment between a mother and child. Bowlby's theory inquires that babies and infancts have an 'in-built' tendancy to form an attachment with their carers. He also states that the quality of the attachments made during infancy can affect the emotional development o the child for the rest of their lives.
Social development can change through differences in environmental and cultural variations during the course of life. During imfancy is it said that babies and young children have an 'in-built' tendency to interact primarily with their parents/carers. Social development develops through the later stages of infancy, from primarily playing with parents or carers, to playing along-side other children, but not with them. This is known as 'parallel play'.
Childhood is one of the most important life stages, it is during childhood that you develop faster than ever. You grow at a steadier pace than infancy, but the body has alot of growing to do before a child reaches adolescence. During childhood gross and fine motor skills will fully develop and children will learn many new skills every day, like tying shoelaces or riding a bike.
During childhood, a child becomes fluent in language and develop a better vocabulary, they will also begin to construct coherent sentences and know the meanings behind words. They also begin to learn right from wrong, this is know as moral development. Morals and behaviour is learned from the people around them, like parents and siblings. Children become less selfish and start to understand things from other people's perspectives. They also develop a sense of future, past and present.
As children develop emotionally through childhood, they become more independent, they loosen the primary bonds with parents and carers and develop a sense of 'self'. Relationships with family and friends in this stage will have a big impact on the child's emotional development. These relationships can affect factors like the child's sense of self-worth or level of self-confidence. Children will begin to show compassion and empathy towards others and being to handle their emotions more. It is of paramount important that parents/carers need to encourage this behaviour. Children will also develop an ability to show and talk about their feelings.
Throughout childhood, social development can change in stages, from solitary play to parallel play, from primarily playing alone of with carers to playing with other children and playing as a team. During early childhood, children will engage in simple co-operative play, this is when children may join in with different activities, they will learn to share and take turns. In later childhood (age 5 years or more) children will engage in complex co-operative play. This is when children may use logic and imagination to make and create new games and ways to play, while organising role and creating their own rules.
Adolescence is one of the hardest life stages, although you are slowly reaching your physical peak you have alot of growing and developing to do in the eight short years of adolescence. One of the main physical factors of adolescence is puberty. Puberty is triggered by the release of hormones that control sexual development. For girls, this is the stage when their periods will start. For both boys and girls they will grow taller, pubic hair will develop, and re-productive organs will grow and mature so the body is prepared for sexual re-production. Girls hips will widen, and breasts will develop, where as boys have alot more physical changes, such as; broad shoulders, increased muscle growth, testes dropping and voice becoming deeper. This stage usually starts around the ages of 11 and 13 although for some girls it may be earlier.
During adolescence, intellectual development is at its peak. This is the phase in which you will be in your final years of school, or starting college or university, so you will be constantly learning.
Adolescence can be hard for emotional development, some adolescents feel that no one understands them, so they feel isolated and frustrated, puberty can also cause moodswings and things like depression and anxiety can have an impact on emotional development.
Social development in adolescence can vary, from teenagers who are very social, to people who are very alone and isolated. This will differ according to your emotional development and mental health.
By the time you are an adult you will have reached your physical peak and will have stopped all major growth. You can change physically according to your health and lifestyle options. All reproductive organs will have been fully developed and you are now able to have children of your own.
As an adult you will be constantly learning new things, your intellectual development doesn't stop during adulthood. You will be learning new skills, such as communication skills for jobs, skills of your chosen trade, parenting skills and so on. You will also learn things like language skills if you should move around or travel.
In adulthood emotional development can reflect upon your upbringing, for example if you had a bad relationship with your parents it can affect your relationships. However during adulthood new bonds and relationships are made, for example when you get married, or have children. You will also experience things like loss of a family member or friend and learn to deal with these emotions for future life.
Social development in adults can differ depending on your situation and lifestyle. For example if you are married with children, and on a low income you will not be able to go out as much as a couple who have no children or a high income.
During older adulthood your body will go into physical decline. Your skin will lose elasticity, your senses may begin to deteriorate, like hearing or sight problems. Hair will become gray and thinner, and your cells will become weaker, making you more prone to illness, or fight off infection.
in older adulthood, your brain will mind will begin to deteriorate, if your mind is not stimulated often enough you may begin to forget things, or develop things like memory loss, or dementia. However, you may pick up new skills that you didn't when you were younger. Things like knitting, fishing, sewing, problem solving and new hobbies.
During older adulthood you may experience some problems with emotional development. For example losing your husband or wife will have a big impact on your emotional wellbeing. Some elderly people who live alone can become very lonely and isolated, this is where help is needed with things like visits from carers, or befrienders.
Social development for older adulthood can vary, once again depending on your situation. If you have lost your partner and don't see your family/children often you may become very isolated and alone, however if you and your partner are both in good health then you may still have a good social life. Some elderly people like to meet up or go shopping, to get them out for the day, this is also part of social development.
Once you have reached older adulthood your body will begin to decline until you pass away. There are many theories about the end of life, but the one thing we can be sure of is that life does inevitably ends. One of these theories states that, growth is based on the renewal or creation of new cells. However this cycle can only happen a certain amount of times. Causing your body to eventually run out of cells, causing your body to deteriorate and die.
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