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Cultural Traits

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Rose McDonnell

on 11 January 2013

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Transcript of Cultural Traits

in the Thirteen Colonies The Seven Cultural Traits Social Groups Religion Religion Puritans Quakers Daily Life Language Government Economy The Arts The Puritans were a group of English protestants. The religious group was founded in 16th century by protestants who had fled the country during Queen Mary I's reign. The Puritans fled to the Netherlands and New England. The passengers on the Mayflower were Puritans. The Puritans formed religious groups preaching a worship of purity, worship and doctrine. As an outcome of the first civil war in England, the Puritans gained major political force. During the time of the English Restoration, the Church of England regained their power and the Puritans were left on the side. In 1620 the Mayflower left for the New World after search of religious freedom in other countries. That began Puritanism in the New World. There were many different people of different religions in the 13 colonies. Some were Puritans, Quakers, Lutherans, Catholics, Jews, Baptists and Anglicans. The picture above represents the different religions and reasons of the colonies. The Religious Society of Friends, also informally known as Quakers was formed in the 17th century. During their early days they were persecuted and opposed. William Penn purchased Pennsylvania in 1682 and pledged religious freedom. This attracted people from many religions. Though Pennsylvania let people live freely, Quakers in Puritan Massachusetts were persecuted, jailed and banished. By Rose McDonnell Lower Class The Gentry class was the very powerful social class of the 13 colonies. The Gentry class owned grand plantations and would hold jobs of doctors, merchants, lawyers and ministers. These people had the right to vote, too. The gentry class had fancy and expensive clothing, furniture, mansions and some had servants. They would make sure the classes weren't mixed because of their feelings to people in different classes. The gentry were most of the people drawn to the arts. In Colonial America social class was determined by financial power, jobs and possession of land. A person's social class decided their legal rights, clothing and church seats. Gentry Middling The Middling class was made up of farmers and small merchants. The people in the middling class owned land and worked hard to keep it. If they owned land they could vote, which was what every man wanted to do. Middling men would work crafting and skill jobs like teaching, wood working and shoe making. Supplies they made were sold to go to their income. Few in the middling class even held office. The women in the middling class would make their own household products like clothes, candles and soaps. They also made food and cheese. The lower class was made up of slaves, servants, sailors and apprentices. They were mostly uneducated and didn't own property. Indentured servants had came from England and worked for 5-7 years to pay for their trip to America. African slaves had been taken against their will to work. English Early modern English was spoken by many colonists. Today we speak Modern English. If we read Early modern English today it is still understandable, while text of English from earlier times are not. Early modern English has evolved to our modern English today. Early modern English was a big change from Middle English. It changed the way the language was spoken. There were changes in vocabulary, pronunciation and different dialect. It started a new era of English. William Shakespeare used Early modern English in his writing. There are many differences from modern English to Early modern English. These are just some of them: Second person Pronoun were different in Early modern English. 'You' was thou, thee, thy, and thine. Third person singular often ended in a -th instead of an -s to day, "I hateth thee," is "I hate you." 'I's were sometimes replaced with 'Y's, some words like 'bread(e)' and 'our(e)' ended in 'E's. There were many differences in spelling and writing, but if someone spoke Early modern English to you probably could understand. Taxes Governors The Council The governors were nominated by the king. They had almost completed authority of their colony. Courts made the general rules for the colony. The Governor's Court would advise the governor. The governor appointed the council members who would serve him. The council members acted as government at times with absent governors or at times between governors. The council member would also have to be authorized by the British government. The council was like a supreme court for the colony. They would approve new laws and deal with taxes and budgets. Both the council and assembly were unpaid. The assemblies were made of people elected by the citizens. Only free men who owned property could vote. The taxes and budgets were initiated in the assembly. They also were in charge of supplying the militia. The assemblies had names like the House of Burgesses, House of Delegates, and Assembly of Freemen. Assembly Agriculture Fishing The New England colonies had big fishing communities. They would fish in bays or rivers. At first Pilgrims had trouble farming and fishing but by the 1640s they had gotten successful in fishing. Fishing then played a big roles in the New England's economy. The New England, Middle and Southern colonies all farmed. The New England colonies produces much of their food. Large numbers would be shipped to England. The Middle colonies also farmed. Their crops were grains. The Southern colonies was almost completely agricultural. Some had big plantations with many laborers. Big crops in the Southern colonies were tobacco, rice and indigo. After a huge debt because of the 7 Years War, the British taxed the colonists heavily to regain money. They also wanted money from the colonists who had obtained money from buying British imports. They wanted it to be be paid with British pounds and made a law that it had to be. This made it hard for the colonists to pay the taxes. After that act was the Stamp Tax. The act commanded the colonists to buy a government-supplied stamp for legal documents and paper goods. These acts caused revolts and boycotts in the colonies. A famous revolt on the taxes was the Boston Tea Party. of a Puritan Clothing Routine Food Puritans days started at dawn and ended at dusk. Their days were very busy. Everyone did their daily chores. Men would go to their jobs to support their family. Women would work in the house doing jobs like sewing, cooking and conserving food. The children were schooled because they wanted their children to be able to read the bible. Young girls would rarely play games because they were supposed to help their mothers in the house. Boys were allowed to explore and fish outside. Everyone had to attend church twice a week. Puritans tried to simple lives and usually wore clothing was just as simple. They would wear dark and dull clothes. They would try to avoid bright colors. The Puritan women wore no frills but sometimes wore lace. The Puritans both farmed and fish so their meals were made up of fish or meats and stew. Their dessert would be sugared almond or custard. Puritans did drink wine and ale opposing common belief. There was a lot of art in colonial America. Many artists made portraits of governors, well known men and women, and gentry families. Many well known artists had requests for portraits. John Singleton Copley was the colonies' greatest painter. He painted portraits and used both oil and pastel. Another colonial American artist was Benjamin West. He was the first American painter to reach fame internationally. Painting Music in the 13 colonies consisted of ballads, dance music, folk music, operas, psalms and sonatas. Music was both written and aurally played. This rich variety of music brought out many different parts of the culture in colonial America. The violin was used to play lots of colonial music. Other commonly used instruments were flutes, cellos, trumpets, french horns, clarinets, oboes and the organ. The piano became popular at the time of the Revolution. Wealthy women played the harpsichord. Operas were popular in the colonies, and a favorite was The Beggars' Opera, by John Gay. Music The End
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