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L&C II

Critical Theory
by

Ana Belaustegui

on 31 May 2013

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Transcript of L&C II

Structuralism Ferdinand de Saussure
Text as a system or structure
Distinction between Langue and Parole
Language as a naming process: Signification

Meaning is stable
Meaning is arbitrary, conventional, relational and differential
Rolland Barthes: 2 types of meaning (Denotative -descriptive- and Connotative -evaluative and cultural-) Semiotics Post Structuralism Jacques Derrida How can we approach a text? Critical Theory Critical Theory is an umbrella term that includes different Fields of Study A Field of Study is a particular academic discipline or area of study Structuralism
Semiotics
Narratology
Reception Studies
Post-Structuralism
Power Relations
Gender Studies/Feminism
Film Studies
Television Studies
Border Theory
Digital Theory Post-Colonial Theory
Psychoanalysis
Theory of Adaptation Charles Sanders Peirce: Categorization of signs (Symbol, Icon, Index) Ferdinand de Saussure: Dyadic combination of a Signifier and a Signified Symbol/symbolic: a mode in which the signifier does not resemble the signified but which is fundamentally arbitrary or purely conventional - so that the relationship must be learnt. Icon/iconic: a mode in which the signifier is perceived as resembling or imitating the signified (recognizably looking, sounding, feeling, tasting or smelling like it) - being similar in possessing some of its qualities Index/indexical: a mode in which the signifier is not arbitrary but is directly connected in some way (physically or causally) to the signified - this link can be observed or inferred Chandler, D. (1995). Semiotics for beginners. http://users.aber.ac.uk/dgc/Documents/S4B/ Binary Oppositions As defined by Chandler (1995) binary oppositions are Pairs of mutually-exclusive signifiers in a paradigm set representing categories which are logically opposed and which together define a complete universe of discourse (relevant ontological domain), e.g. alive/not-alive. In such oppositions each term necessarily implies its opposite and there is no middle term. Inside a binary opposition, we can find:
the term on the left -i.e the culturally privileged term-
the gap -always expressed by the word "vs"
the term on the right -i.e the marginalized term- "1984" "The Hunger Games" Democracy vs Totalitarianism
Freedom vs Oppression
Memory vs Oblivion
Freedom of thought vs Media Manipulation Both terms should be expressed through abstract nouns Life vs Death
Victory vs Defeat
Privilege vs Deprivation
Submission vs Rebellion http://www.synonym.com/ Narratology Narratology is the study of the way in which narratives function structuring our perception Plot vs Story Particular aesthetic representation of the story Logical and chronological events, including all the information implied: le non dit Time Plot Time Story Time linear and non-linear multilinear Author ≠ Narrator If narrating is related to speaking,
focalizing is then related to seeing External Focalizers Internal Focalizers Omniscient narrator: The narrator overcomes normal limitations of time and space, having access to the consciousness of every character.
Written in 3rd person. These narrators have partial knowledge.
Written in 3rd limited person or in 1st unreliable person.
Internal focalization can be fixed, variable or multiple. The focalizer might be any character who is the center of perception (not necessarily the narrator) Narrative Techniques Analepsis (Flashback)
Prolepsis (Flashforward, anticipation of plot)
Elipsis (Omission. Related to social taboos)
Metalepsis (from one fictional world to the other) Reception Studies Context Production Culture Reception Historical, social, economic and cultural context Fictional world inside the text Interpretive Community Target Readers
Us now Variables
Audiences are never homogeneous Gender
Status
Age
Previous Knowledge Schema INTERTEXTUALITY
Julia Kristeva Resignification Claude Lèvi Strauss Anthropology Theory on how the human mind works Binary Oppositions Cooked vs Raw The 2 terms in a binary opposition
do not have the same value One is PRIVILEGED and the other is MARGINAL Power Relations Michel Foucault Power is the ability to effect change through domination or control It is different from violence, invisible, untouchable and in a constant flux ≠ manifestations
Gaze
Discourse (knowledge, language and power)
Architecture Panopticon
Jeremy Bentham
1791 http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-eByvhDI8DxU/TtDwonqu5qI/AAAAAAAAAEY/AqBgRB0TuFI/s1600/Panopticon.jpg Interpellation Louis Althusser How power acts upon us Accept
Negotiate
Reject Gender Studies Gender vs Sex Cultural and social construction as a result of socialization Genitalia Shaped by Patriarchy Patriarchal Discourse Languages are gendered
Poetry=Female Male vs Female
Active vs Passive
Dominance vs Submission violent hierarchical organization Feminism 3 waves 1st 2nd 3rd Political movement(Right to vote)
Mary Wollstonecraft 'On the Vindication of Women' Simone de Beauvoir Hélène Cixous Film Studies Films as languages composed of units called Shots. Editing joins these together to form sequences, equivalent of a sentence to a paragraph. Mise-en-scène
Production design:sets, props and costumes
Colour
Lighting
Actor's Performance (including casting and make-up) and movement (blocking)
Diegetic sound
Framing 5 main types of Editing
Cut
Dissolve
Wipe
Fade out/in
Iris Ways of organizing edits
Eyeline match
Frame cutting
Match on action
Shot/reverse-shot
Cross cutting
Montage Camera Position
(Mediated Image)
Shots

Extreme Close-Up
Close-Up
Medium Close-Up
Medium Shot
Medium Long Shot
Long Shot
Extreme Long Shot Editing might result in disruption Continuity System Height

High Angle Shot
Low Angle Shot
Level Shot Depth of Field

Foreground
Background
Out of focus Border Theory There is a "border" for most of the situations that surround us 3rd Space Television Studies Television as a new mass technology

Almost every household possesses at least one television

From Mass Communication Studies to Media Studies to Television Studies. http://www.qiu.ir/Files/110/Document/General/1391/7/30/95e6826945414462b8de24d024935c4f.pdf Homi Bhabha
"The Location of Culture" http://www9.georgetown.edu/faculty/irvinem/theory/Bhabha-LocationofCulture-chaps.pdf Henry Giroux Digital Theory http://books.google.com.ar/books?id=qqdomnPTL9cC&lpg=PR11&ots=T7ZGZZEKyX&dq=critical%20theory%20digital%20theory%20pdf&lr&hl=es&pg=PA2#v=onepage&q&f=false Hypertext 3.0 Hypertext as a network of nods and links http://books.google.com.ar/books?id=KgZXCCfP0rQC&pg=PA3&dq=hypertext+definition&hl=es&sa=X&ei=LNCfUZ7OBYru8QSJ4oGwCA&ved=0CCwQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=hypertext%20definition&f=false Multimedia and Hypertext: the Internet and Beyond Bibliography -Chandler, D. (1995). Semiotics for beginners. Retrieved from http://www.aber.ac.uk/media/Documents/S4B/semiotic.html
-Cirlot, J. E. (2002). A Dictionary of Symbols. Courier Dover Publications. Retrieved from http://books.google.com.ar/books?id=-ECFg1a_6bgC&pg=PA55&dq=significance+of+colours&hl=es&ei=ZuC8TNOjIMKclgeGvdWwDQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=5&ved=0CDoQ6AEwBA#v=onepage&q=significance%20of%20colours&f=false- Cranny-Francis, A., Waring, W., Stavropoulos, P. & Kirby, J. (2003). Gender Studies: Terms and Debates. Palgrave Macmillan.
- Felluga, D. (n.d.). Introduction to Narratology. Retrieved from http://www.cla.purdue.edu/academic/engl/theory/narratology/
- Felluga, D. (n.d.). Modules on Foucault. Retrieved from http://www.cla.purdue.edu/English/theory/newhistoricism/modules/foucaultpower.html
- Foucault, M. (1977). Discipline & Punish: The Birth of the Prison.
- Foucault, M.(1980). “The Eye of Power.” Power/Knowledge: Selected Interviews and Other Writings 1972-1977.
- Genette, G. (1972). Narrative Discourse: An Essay on Method. Retrieved from http://www.faculty.english.ttu.edu/clarke/classes/5343/s07/Genette,%20Order.htm
- Genette, G. (1997). Palimpsests: Literature in the Second Degree. Retrieved from http://books.google.com.ar/books?id=KbYzNp94C9oC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Palimpsests:+literature+in+the+second+degree&source=bl&ots=iRz85BxWZO&sig=IP76m2rudu8zVc5mkTVUEZ3ddu0&hl=es&ei=4cO7TJWEFIKClAfo3OSmDQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CCEQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q&f=false
- Gorton, K. (2009). Media Audiences: Television, Meaning and Emotion. Edinburgh: University Press. Retrieved from
http://books.google.com.ar/books?id=UWEMD13YmIMC&pg=PA92&dq=close+up+shots+emotions&hl=es&ei=iX6-TMRvhryVB-XX3eIH&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDoQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=close%20up%20shots%20emotions&f=false
- Hayward, S. (2006) Key Concepts in Cinema Studies. Routledge.
- Lacey, N. (2005). Introduction to Film. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.
- McGowan, K. (2006). The Routledge Companion to Critical Theory. New York, NY: Routledge.
- Villarejo, A. (2007). Film Studies: The Basics. New York, NY: Routledge.
- Wake, P. (2006). The Routledge Companion to Critical Theory. New York, NY: Routledge. Self vs Other
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