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Transcript of executive function
Difficulty finding and keeping a job Math and reading competence Partner with poor EFs Difficult to get along with
More likely to act on impulse Poor EFs lead to social problems Crime
Emotional outbursts Executive functions (EFs) are the skills needed to concentrate and pay attention, consider things from multiple points of view, remember rules, think flexibly and not go on automatic.
(Elen Galinsky, 2010). School success School readiness Job success Quality of life Physical health Mental health EFs are impaired in many mental disorders such as Addictions
Obesity Compulsive Disorder
Schizophrenia Children are not born with EF skills but they have the capacity to develop them throughout the lifespan The quality of the experiences and interactions provided to children will strengthen or weaken the developing skills. Risk factors on the development of EFs Sleep
deprivation Lack of sleep particularly affects executive functioning Sleep deprivation can make any kid irritable, impulsive, hyperactive, and have trouble concentrating. Stress Stress can alter the development of EFs which affect our memory, problem solving and decision making. "Our brains work better when we are not in a stressed emotional state" (Amy Arsten, 1998) Risk factors ADHD and Executive Functioning
According with many authors (Barkley, 1997; Castellanos and Tannock, 2002; Pennington and Ozonoff, 1996; Schachar et al 2000) ADHD starts with a primary deficit in a specific EF domain such as response inhibition or working memory or a more general weakness in executive control. Attention Deficit/
(ADHD) Paying Attention or Focus Working Memory Cognitive Flexibility Inhibitory Control CORE EXECUTIVE FUNCTIONS Focusing is essential on achieving goals, (e.g. homework, household duties, work projects, etc). If someone can’t pay attention or can get distracted easily, it is hard to concentrate on the task at hand. Working memory is the ability to hold and remember information while working with it over a short period of time. Ability to switch perspectives and consider things from multiple points of view. It is the ability to inhibit one's will and instead do what it is more appropriate. (Ellen Galinsky, 2010) Poorer EFs are associated with Obesity and Substance abuse Better EFs =
Better quality of life Blair and Razza (2007) affirmed that executive functions are more important for school readiness than IQ EFs predict math and reading competence throughout the school years Marital harmony Poor EFs predict poor productivity which leads to difficulties finding and keeping a job Partner with poor EFs can be more difficult to get along with Public safety Poor EFs can cause social problems such as crime and violence Executive function present in every aspect of life (Diamond, 2013) Causes of ADHD / ADD
Causes of ADHD are unknown but genetic factors may be responsible for this disorder. ADHD appears early in life when the brain is developing
Lack of sleep
Pliszka S., (2007) Dr. Russell Barkley, a professor of psychiatry at the University of South Carolina is a leading expert on ADHD.
Here Dr. Russell Barkley discusses the five cognitive abilities that appear to be impaired in children with ADHD. . In a few words EF is a cognitive ability to make our daily task. Attention disorder hyperactive deficit (ADHD) is when children did not developed Executive Function.
Children with ADHD have difficulties with planning as well controlling their emotions and finally feeling frustration. However children with deficit in EF’s are smart, creative and friendly. They have difficulty at school and activities requires paying attention too. It creates deficits in several areas.
Bailey E., (2009) Barkley’s model – Interference Control Holding task or events in mind, sense of time, organizations of behavior. Directed action (goal) emotional self-control, drive and motivation and objectivity. Reflection, problem solving self questioning and moral reasoning Analysis of behavior, verbal fluency, goal directed and behavioral simulations Working memory reconstitution internalization of speech Self regulation of Affect / Motivation References: Gallinsky, E. (2012). Executive Function Skills Predict Children's Success in Life and in School. Retrieve June 21, 2012 from (http://developingchild.harvard.edu/index.php/resources/briefs/inbrief_series/inbrief_executive_function/ ).
Pliszka S; AACAP Work Group on Quality Issues. Practice parameter for the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. (2007) retrieve p.p 894-921 from ( http://pennstatehershey.adam.com/content.aspx?productId=117&pid=1&gid=001551 ).
Hallahan, J.W. Lloyd, J.M. Kauffman, M.P. Weiss, E.A. Martinez, edition, retrieve (2005) from pp. 277-280.
Activities and Programs That Improve Children’s Executive Functions Current Directions in Psychological Science October 2012 pp. 335-341 Center on the Developing Child at Harvard University (2012). In Brief. Executive Function Skills for Life and Learning. Retrieve from http://developingchild.harvard.edu/index.php/resources/briefs/inbrief_series/inbrief_executive_function/ Diamond, A. (2013). Executive Functions .Annual Review of Psychology, 64, 135-168. [Epub Sept 27, 2012 ahead of print]
Carpenter P. et. al (2000). Working memory and executive function: evidence from neuroimaging Center for Cognitive Brain Imaging, Department of Psychology, Current Opinion in Neurobiology 2000, 10:195–199 The prefrontal cortex is the last part of our brains to develop and is responsible for our ability to exchange information across the high-level areas of the brain so that our behavior can be guided by our accumulated knowledge. Gallinsky (2012) Mind, Brain, Health and Education Harvard Extension School Final Project Silvia Sarai Garza Mata
Angela Silvana Moreno Sanchez Computer based training, traditional martial arts and physical activity such as Yoga shown to improve Executive Functions.