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Common Elements in The Periodic Table

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Karl Aaron Bayonito

on 29 September 2012

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Transcript of Common Elements in The Periodic Table

Common Elements In the
Periodic Table The Periodic Table of Elements -Is a tabular display of the chemical elements
-It is a 18x7 grid
- There are 118 present elements, 92 are naturally occuring, and 50 are common ones. THE COMMON ELEMENTS OF THE PERIODIC TABLE ZINC is a Transition Metal in the table of elements. ZINC STATS
-Zinc is a bluish-white metal with a shiny surface. It is neither ductile nor malleable at room temperature. Ductile means capable of being drawn into thin wires. Malleable means capable of being hammered into thin sheets. At temperatures above 100°C (212°F), however, zinc becomes somewhat malleable. Zinc's melting point is 419.5°C (787.1°F) and its boiling point is 908°C (1,670°F). Its density is 7.14 grams per cubic centimeter. Zinc is a fairly soft metal. Its hardness is 2.5 on the Mohs scale. The Mohs scale is a way of expressing the hardness of a material. It runs from 0 (for talc) to 10 (for diamond). USES -Zinc is used in conjunction with copper, magnesium and aluminium in die casting and spin casting which is used in the automotive, electrical, and hardware industries.

-It is also used in alloys such as nickel silver, typewriter metal, soft and aluminum solder, and commercial bronze.

-In some countries, such as the United States, Zinc is used to make money. PHOSPORUS A multivalent nonmetal of the nitrogen group, phosphorus as a mineral is almost always present in its maximally oxidised state, as inorganic phosphate rocks. Elemental phosphorus exists in two major forms—white phosphorus and red phosphorus Phosphorus exists in at least three allotropic forms. Allotropes are forms of an element with different physical and chemical properties. The three main allotropes are named for their colors: white phosphorus (also called yellow phosphorus), red phosphorus, and black phosphorus (also called violet phosphorus). These allotropes all have different physical and chemical properties. USES -The strikers for matchsticks are made from phosphorus. Flares and safety matches are also made from phosphorus.
-White phosphorus is used in incendiary bombs, smoke screens (such as smoke bombs) and tracer ammunition.
-Phosphorus is an important component of DNA and RNA.
-Phosphorus is used in the production of steel. NEON Neon is a member of the noble gas family. Other elements in this family includes helium, argon, krypton, xenon, and radon. Neon is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It changes from a gas to a liquid at -245.92°C (-410.66°F) and from a liquid to a solid at -248.6°C (-415.5°F). Its density is 0.89994 grams USES Neon has relatively few uses. The most familiar is neon lighting. Today, neon signs of every color, shape, and size exist. Neon signs are often filled with neon gas, but they may also contain other gases as well. The gas contained in the sign tube determines the color of light given off. The color given off by neon itself is reddish-orange. COBALT is a chemical element with symbol Co and atomic number 27. It is found naturally only in chemically combined form. The free element, produced by reductive smelting, is a hard, lustrous, silver-gray metal. Cobalt has a melting point of 1495°C, boiling point of 2870°C, specific gravity of 8.9 (20°C), with a valence of 2 or 3. Cobalt is a hard, brittle metal. It is similar in appearance to iron and nickel. Cobalt has a magnetic permeability around 2/3 that of iron. Cobalt is found as a mixture of two allotropes over a wide temperature range. The b-form is dominant at temperatures under 400°C, while the a-form predominates at higher temperatures. USES -Paints, varnishes and inks can be made with cobalt if a certain color is needed.
-Lithium cobalt oxide is used as an electrode in lithium batteries.
-Some jewelery and cutlery are electroplated (coated) with cobalt as it is hard and resistant to oxidation. HYDROGEN is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1. With an average atomic weight of 1.00794 u (1.007825 u for hydrogen-1), hydrogen is the lightest element and its monatomic form (H1) is the most abundant chemical substance, constituting roughly 75% of the Universe's baryonic mass. At standard temperature and pressure, hydrogen is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, non-toxic, nonmetallic, highly combustible diatomic gas with the molecular formula H2. Naturally occurring atomic hydrogen is rare on Earth because hydrogen readily forms covalent compounds with most elements and is present in the water molecule and in most organic compounds. Hydrogen plays a particularly important role in acid-base chemistry with many reactions exchanging protons between soluble molecules. USES -Used to process (‘upgrade’) fossil fuels.
-Tritium, a radioactive isotope of hydrogen, is produced in nuclear reactions. It can be used to make hydrogen bombs and acts as a radiation source in luminous paints.
-Can be used to make water. URANIUM is a silvery-white metallic chemical element in the actinide series of the periodic table, with symbol U and atomic number 92 Uranium generally has a valence of 6 or 4. Uranium is a heavy, lustrous, silvery-white metal, capable of taking a high polish. It exhibits three crystallographic modifications: alpha, beta, and gamma. It is a bit softer than steel; not hard enough to scratch glass. USES -Uranium is used to create atomic bombs.
-It is used to produce electricity in power plants
-Uranium is also mined to isolate radium for use in glow in the dark paints for clock faces and aircraft dials.
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