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The History, Evolution & Trends in Distributed Computing

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Law J

on 18 October 2013

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Transcript of The History, Evolution & Trends in Distributed Computing

The History, Evolution & Trends in Distributed Computing
CST333 - Distributed and Grid Computing
Law Jia Jge 107587
Assignment 1
1.0 Introduction
Distributed Computing
- Field to study distributed system
Distributed System
- hardware or software components located at networked computers communicate and coordinate their actions only by message passing
Motivation:-
Demand for high computation power - solve complex problems
Desire of resource sharing - increase efficiency
Rapid growing of network infrastructure - immediate feedback
Concept:-
Clustering
Break task into several sets of smaller task
Assign to different nodes to process simultaneously
Differences with clustering:-
DC allow the nodes to placed in anywhere
Use middleware - allow various OS nodes to function as a single coherent system
Middleware - common communications protocol
Goal:-
Making resources accessible
Distribution transparency
Open
Scalable
Communication
Coordination
2.0 History
A. 1960s
Mainframe IBM System/360
Communication is rare
Perform large computation/processing
Study of concurrent process
1969, ARPANET - predecessor of Internet
B. 1970s
ARPANET email
Pioneer large scale distributed application
Most success apps fro ARPANET
Local-area Network - Ethernet
DCS (Distributed Computing System)
Create system that interconnect minicomputers
Provide resource sharing, fault tolerant
Put in operation at 1973
Creeper & Reaper - 1971
1st distributed computing programs
Creeper - self duplicate/self copy
Reaper - delete all copies of Creeper
1st computer virus
C. 1980s
Internet, Fidonet, Usenet started to explode
University & Research Insititude branched out DC as own branch
Symposium on Principles of Distirbuted Computing (PODC) 1982 & International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC) 1985
Parallel architectures & message passing interface
DEC System Research Center - 1988
1st distributed computing project
D. 1990s - Present
Distribute.net - 1997
1st project that use internet to distribute data
User download program instead of email
Advanced in technology
Grid architecture
Web-Services
Cloud computing
Google optimize search algorithm through DC
SETI@Home
Popularized DC
Analyze radio signals
Prove that DC works
3.0 Evolution
Mainframe IBM System/360
Communication is rare
Perform large computations & massive processing
Communicate by manually mounting data into a tape and transfer it from one system to another
ARPANET - 1969
BBN Technologies
Earliest example of DC
Predecessor of the Internet
1970s
ARPANET Email
Most success application in ARPANET
Local Area Network (LAN)
Allow machines connected within a building to shared small amount of information
Host-Based Hierarchy
First data processing distributed system
Mainframe - Centralized host, Minicomputers - User terminal
1960s
1960s
1970s
Decentralized Stand-Alone Systems
Deploy mainly in organizations
Not really a form of distributed system
Predecessor of ERP systems
1980s
Workstations Server
Become demanding and increase exponentially
Personal computer
Desktop
High demand
Drop in hardware price
1980s
Early 1990s
Client-Server Architecture
Known as two-tier architecture
1st tier - Client, application function with GUI
2nd tier - Databases, handle data storage
Widely used in ERP
Lead to changes in LAN to support high traffic data transmission
Early 1990s
1991
Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA)
Distributed computing protocol
Industry wide, open standard initiative
Enable:-
Apps to run on any hardware in anywhere
Apps can be written in any language that has mappings with IDL
Introduction of Java RMI demise CORBA
1991
1993
Distributed Computing Object Model (DCOM)
Developed by Microsoft
Solution for Microsoft Windows Platform DC problems
Enables the communication for Windows-based software components
Use RPC mechanism
Limited only to Microsoft application environments
1993
1998
Clustering
Introduced by Donald Becker and Thomas Sterling
Small computers are interconnected with a serving computer to become a supercomputer
Provide high processing power in lower cost
Small nodes will compute the task and return the results to serving computer
Internet-Based Computing & Web Services
Usage of URLs to called upon to perform the function as a service via the Internet
Led to introduction of HTTP and XML
Enable communication between client and web services
HTTP - stateless protocol, enable transportation of static HTML web content
XML - enhance the scalibility and promotes interoperability between web applications.
New way of applcation-to application communication
Late 1990s
Late 1990s
1998
Peer-to-peer
Written and introduced by Napster
Similar to ARPANET
Goal:
Enable sharing of data, e.g.: streaming audio/video
Eliminate requirements of servers and associate infrastructure
Advantage:
Storage can evenly distributed amongst nodes
Costs of bandwidth are spread
Capacity increase automatically with popularity
2000 - Present
2000 - Present
A new paradigm due to emergence of mobile technology, big data
Grid Computing
Ubiquitous Computing
Cloud Computing
Becoming a trend in distributed computing
4.0 Trends
A. Grid Computing
Allow variety of geographically distributed resources to be shared and aggregate
Grid Broker:-
Negotiate for access costs
Schedule, deploy tasks and collect final results
Benefits:-
Transparent
On-demand access
Improved productivity
Extra resources to solve problem
Example:
Financial Organization - Collaboration for computational power
Online Multiplayer Game - Dedicated game server in various country
Weather Forecasting - Require high data and computational power
B. Mobile & Ubiquitous Computing
Mobile computing enable:-
Use of a computing device even though they are moving around
Can continue access the resources in their home such as printer and etc
Known as location-aware/context-aware computing
Ubiquitous computing: -
new genre of DC that permeates user's life
Enable devices and computers become helpful but invisible force to fulfilled user needs
Example: remotely control appliances in home through user smart phone. The appliances will notify the user when job done
C. Cloud Computing
A model for enabling convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources that can rapidly provioned and released with minimal management effor or service provider interaction
Clustering a set of computers to provide the scale and performance for cloud
Benefits:-
Flexible and storage of resources
Allow wide range of resource sharing
Advantages (for organizations):-
Flexible response
Reliability
Cost reduction
5.0 Discussion
A. Future Investigation
Security and Privacy Issue for DC
Main concern
All nodes are interconnected, easy to penetrate
Implicit trust must be built
Proper guidelines needed
B. Future Trend of Distributed Computing
Continuum Computing
Enable resource sharing and remote control easily
Example 1: Transferring recipe from personal computer to tablet
Example 2: Smart devices provide info about what is happening on other channels before user change the channel of TV
Need all appliances to connected to the cloud
Smartphone Grids / Smart Grids
Interconnected smartphone or smart devices into a grid like Grid Computing
Provide slightly amount of computational power
Solve complex problems on smart devices
6.0 Conclusion
Distributed Computing is a fast emerging field
It keep evolving and changing to meet user demand
People will eager to see how far distributed computing will goes in the future
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