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The Crusades: Causes & Effects
Transcript of The Crusades: Causes & Effects
The cause of the first Christian Crusade was mainly because of the Muslim Turks invading and taking over the Holy Land. Christians within Europe couldn't enter the Holy Land anymore, so they started to support the Crusades. Another reason the First Crusade was started was because Merchants wanted to establish trade routes in the East.
The effect of the First Crusade was that the Christians captured Jerusalem and other key cities. They divided the Holy Land into four states.
After the end of the First Crusade, the Holy Land was reclaimed and split into four states. Unfortunately one of the four states was captured by the Muslim Turks. That was the cause of the Second Crusade.
The Christians lost during the Second Crusade and didn't get one of the four states taken by the Muslim Turks. So they lost one state, but kept the other three states.
The cause of the Third Crusade was when the Muslim leader, Saladin, captured Jerusalem completely. This was the cause of the Third Crusade.
Richard the Lion-Hearted lead the Third Crusade and he ended it with a treaty between himself and Saladin. The treaty made it so the Muslims kept Jerusalem but Christian pilgrims could travel there freely.
The cause of the Fourth Crusade was because the truce between Saladin and Richard failed. Innocent III was a strong supporter of glory for the Papacy. Due to this he revived Pope Urban II. He wanted to unit more Christians against the Muslims. A great number of Knights supported him. Thus starting the Fouth Crusade.
During the Fourth Crusade, the crusaders decided to capture and take Constantinople instead of Jerusalem this time. They attacked and sacked Constantinople. This was a very violent sack. Things were burned, several people were killed, and several things were destroyed. Due to this great amount of damage on Constantinople, the city could no longer defend itself well against invaders, which made it so the Turks easily made it fall.
From their exposure to superior Muslim technology, Europeans learned how to
Build better ships & Use a compass
Western Europe began to express an interest in trade. The crusaders brought back luxury goods. These items were vastly popular. To get more, Western Europe began to trade with her neighbors. Goods brought back included:
Silk, Spices, Sugar, Art, & Literature
The cause of the Children's Crusade was that Stephen of Cloyes, a 12 year old boy, was convinced that Jesus told him to lead a crusade of children. Children were very eager to do this and nothing could stop them.
The Children's Crusade had many results and effects. The results of the French Children's Crusade was that lots of the children that set out were betrayed at the port of Marseilles. Lots of them were sold into slavery. Eventually, the children remaining gave up and went home.
The German Children's Crusade was lead by a boy named Nicholas. He lead several people from the Alps and into Italy. They expected to take a ship to Palestine from Brindisi, Rome. However, a lot of the children sailed away and were never heard from again. More of the children died of hardships and some were even sold into slavery.
Pope Innocent III commented "These children put us to shame; while we sleep they rush to recover the Holy Land." Due to these Children's Crusades and their bad results, the Crusades started to diminish.
The Fifth, Sixth, Seventh, Eighth, and Ninth Crusades were known as the Minor Crusades because they didn't accomplish much. They were caused because there were still some Christians out there that still had that zeal that the crusaders in the early Crusades had.
Overall Effects of the Crusades
Although the crusades failed, they had a major impact on Western Europe.
-They helped to break down feudalism by increasing the authority of kings.
- Some nobles died in battle without leaving an heir. Their lands passed to the king.
- Some nobles sold their land in an effort to raise money to pay the special tax levied by the king to offset the cost of the crusades.
- Some nobles gave their serfs a chance to buy their freedom in an effort to raise money they needed to buy armor and weapons
- Some young men who could buy their way out of feudal obligation joined the crusades. Many died. That reduced the work force. If a farm failed, it passed to the king.