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Transcript of Fluency
Informally monitor students throughout school year by listening to them read aloud during guided reading or other reading activities
At the end of each month or quarter, data must be collected about accuracy , speed, and prosody (Tompkins, 2014, p.194)
Reading A-Z example
Amanda Bass, Hannah Eddington, Haley Koch, Sara Tenison and Elly Erwin
Definition: Ability to recognize words automatically and effortlessly (Rasinski 2012)
The ability to do things without having to think about them at a conscious level. (Zezula, 2011)
The ability to read in expressive rhythmic and melodic patterns (Tompkins)
Expression: Students read with enthusiam and vary their expression to match their interpretation of the text.
Phrasing: Students chunk workds into phrases as they read and apply stress and intonation appropriately.
Volume: Students vary the loudness of their voices to add meaning to the text.
Research on Reading Fluency
Read at least 100 words per minute (Tompkins, 2014, p. 184)
"Fluent readers vary their reading speed based on genre, topic, or text complexity" (Tompkins, 2014, p. 184)
Students must develop an appropriate reading speed before they are able to focus on meaning (Tompkins, 2014, p. 190)
5 Surefire Strategies for Developing Reading Fluency
Model Fluent Reading
Do Repeated Readings in Class
Promote Phrased Reading in Class
Enlist Tutors to Help Out
Try Readers Theater in Class
Indispensible Automaticity: How reading frees the mind
By: Terri Zezula
" The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog."
Automaticity allows us to free our brains (working memory) from the details of the task, which allows us to use that brain power for learning.
Majority of students shift from " learning to read" to "reading to learn" around second or third grade.
Students who do not learn automaticity struggle to read which in turn makes learning challenging.
Why Reading Fluency Should Be Hot!
"Fluency is reading with and for meaning."
"Fluency is a bridge from word recognition accuracy to text comprehension."
“Studies...have shown high correlations between reading rate and comprehension.... As a result, reading fluency instruction has become in many classrooms a quest for speed.”
"Fluent writers write most words automatically and accurately, without having to stop and think about how to spell them" (Tompkins, 2014, p. 194).
"Students need to write quickly enough to keep up with their thinking" (Tompkins, 2014, p. 195).
Researchers have discovered that, to be considered fluent writers, students must write 10 words/minute (Tompkins, 2014, p. 195).
"Voice, which is similar to prosody, is the tone or emotional feeling of a piece of writing" (Tompkins, 2014, p. 195).
Writer's voice should reflect students' individuality (Tompkins, 2014, p. 195).
Obstacles to Fluency
How to Teach Fluency
Wide Reading and Deep or Repeated Reading
"Actors, singers, poetry readers, and other performers have a natural reason to rehearse or engage in repeated readings—the performance itself. They wish to convey meaning with their voice. Thus, in classrooms, when reading can be cast is such a way that the text will eventually be performed, readers will have an authentic reason to engage in repeated readings. A reading performance
provides the authentic reason for repeated readings" (Rasinski).
"An authentic approach to deep or repeated readings involves students rehearsing a text (script, song, poem, speech, etc.) over the course of a day or several days for the purpose of eventually performing the text for an audience of listeners" (Rasinski).
This article covered the use of "Dialogue Journals" for improving fluency for ELL students.
Study was conducted at the University level and the students were able to describe what their feelings were on their improvement.
The students said that some qualities of the journal that are connected to perceived improvements are topic choice, spontaneity and frequency.
The students noted more of a motivation to write and being able to see modeling for good and fluent writing.
This article focuses on using story mapping to help students with learning disabilities become more fluent writers.
Three out of the four participants improved on their writing with story mapping and story mapping questions.
Their stories were longer and had more depth to them.
Helps to think about organization, story development and content
Blau, L. (2013). 5 Surefire Strategies for Developing Reading Fluency.
Scholastic. Retrieved from http://www.scholastic.com/teachers/article/5-surefire-strategies-developing-reading-fluency
Definition: ability to read aloud expressively with understanding (Blau)
In order to be fluent readers, students must read at least 100 words per minute (Tompkins)
45 % of fourth graders in the U.S. are not fluent readers (Blau)
Grade Oral Reading Speeds
1 60-75 wcpm*
Figure 6-5 in Tompkins
*wcpm=words correct per min
Students work in small groups or as a whole class to read a selection aloud together (Tompkins, 2014, p. 192)
Effective because all students are actively engaged (Blau)
Students may be less apprehensive about making a mistake because they aren't standing alone (Blau)
Teacher reads script aloud to students and uses choral reading before choosing groups
A group of students practice reading a story script before orally performing
Meaning is conveyed through expression and intonation
Use props and costumes to make it more fun (Blau)
Be sure to choose books on students reading level
Students follow along as they listen to the story being read to them (Tompkins, 2014, p. 192)
Provide computer, head phones, and a hard copy of the book
Classmates read or re-read books together
Partners chose a book that interests them
Can either take turns reading or read aloud together in unison (Tompkins, 2014, p.192)
by: Lisa Blau
"Fluent writers spell words automatically and write quickly so that they can focus on developing their ideas" (Tompkins, 2014, p. 194)
Three Components of Writing Fluency
Research on Writing Fluency
The Effectiveness of Using Literature Response Journal to Improve Students' Writing Fluency
This study supports that literature response journals improve writing fluency.
It also shows that there is some correlation between writing practice and reading habit to writing fluency, and little to no correlation between parental encouragement and perceptions towards the English language to writing fluency.
(Hiew, 2010, p. 27)
Word count day 1: 3,358
Word count day 7: 4,564
Word count day 1: 2,566
Word count day 7: 2,683
Hiew, W. (2010) The effectiveness of using literature response journal to
improve students' writing fluency. Researchers World--Journal of Arts Science & Commerce, 1(1), 27-39.
(Hiew, 2010, p. 32)
(Hiew, 2010, p. 32)
Components for Effective Intervention
Aspects of Fluency in Writing
This article studies the importance of spelling in writing fluency.
They studied a group of students through key-typing to see the time it took them to spell words with double letters.
Found that poor writers struggle with the consonants and it interrupts their fluency, and the stronger writers had less trouble.
Uppstad, P., & Solheim, O. (2007). Aspects of Fluency in Writing.
Journal Of Psycholinguistic Research, 36(2), 79-87.
Rasinski, T. V. (2012). Why Reading Fluency Should be Hot. Reading
Teacher, 65(8), 516-522. doi:10.1002/TRTR.01077
Tompkins, G. E. (2014). Devloping Fluen Readers and Writers. Literacy in the 21st Century. (pp. 183-211). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson
Zezula, T. (2011, February 22). [Web log message]
Retrieved from http://www.scilearn.com/blog/automaticity-in-reading.php
Looking for Quality in Student Writing
Smooth and Expressive Sentence Fluency
Variety in sentence beginning
Variety in sentence length and structure
Easy to read expressively; sounds great when read aloud
Rhythm, Rhyme, Alliteration, and other "sound" effects
Sentences are structured so they are easy to understand
Peha, S. (1995), Looking for Quality in Student Writing.
Retrieved from http://www.ttms.org/writing_quality sentence_fluency.htm
Obstacle #1: Lack of Automaticity
Obstacle #2: Unfamiliarity with Word-Identification Strategies
Obstacle #3: Slow Reading Speed
Obstacle #4: Slow Writing Speed
Obstacle #5: Lack of Prosody
Obstacle #6: Voiceless Writing
Holmes, V. L., & Moulton, M. R. (1997). Dialogue journals as an ESL learning strategy. Journal Of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 40(8), 616.
Providing explicit instruction on diagnosed fluency problems.
Increasing the time for students to read books at their independent level.
Modeling fluent reading and writing.
Clarifying the connections between reading fluency and comprehension and between writing fluency and effective compositions.
Expanding opportunities for writing.
"Deep reading occurs when a student is asked to read a single text repeatedly until a level of fluency is achieved."
“The repeated reading is not aimed at improving reading speed, but in being able to engage in an oral reading that an audience will find meaningful and satisfying.”
“What students learn from the repeated reading of one passage...transfers to the new passage.”
By: Timothy Rasinski
"If automaticity is the fluency link to word recognition, prosody completes the bridge by linking fluency to comprehension."
"The more common term for prosody in reading is reading with expression."
“Prosody allows the reader to infer information that is not explicity stated in the passage.”
"A growing body of research is demonstrating that prosody in oral reading is related to overall proficiency in reading."
High Frequency Words
The most common words that readers use again and again (Tompkins, pg 184)
Eldredge (2005) identified 300 high-frequency words that make up nearly three quarters of the words people read and write. These words are 72% of the words beginning readers read. (Tompkins, pg185)
Kindergarten high frequency words: a, am, an, at, can, do, go, etc.
Ways you can present high frequency words:
Chant and Clap (Tompkins, pg 187)
"When students read expressively, they use their voices to add meaning to the words" (Tompkins).
“Prosody allows the reader to infer information that is not explicity stated in the passage” (Rasinski).
Expression: Reading with enthusiasm and varying expression to match text interpretation.
Phrasing: Chunking words into phrases and applying stress and intonation appropriately.
Volume: Varying the loudness of their voices to add meaning to the text.
Smoothness: Reading with a smooth rhythm and quickly self-correcting mistakes.
Pacing: Reading at a conversational speed.
Word Identification Strategies
Phonic Analysis- Students apply their knowledge of sound-symbol correspondences, phonics rules, and spelling patterns to read or write a word. (Tompkins, pg 189)
Ex. blaze, chin, peach, spring
Decoding by Analogy- Use to identify words by associating them with words they already know (Tompkins, pg. 189)
Ex. at, cat, bat rat
Syllabic Analysis- Divide longer words into syllables (Tompkins, pg 190)
There are 5 syllabiction rules
Morphemic Analysis: use to identify multisyllabic words (Tompkins, pg 191)
Ex. redo, antifreeze, misfire, unfriendly
Ex. walked, servant, bigger
Daqi, L. (2007). Story Mapping and Its Effects on the Writing Fluency and Word Diversity of Students with Learning Disabilities. Learning Disabilities -- A Contemporary Journal, 5(1), 77-93