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S

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Mohamed Ashraf

on 23 December 2013

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Transcript of S

Detail 1
stainless steel
Detail 3
Alloy steels
Detail 2
carbon steels
Steel types and its applications
Detail 4
Tool steels
Stainless steel
. stainless steel is a common name for metal alloys that consist of 10.5 % or more chromium , and more than 50 % iron , and some other alloying elements added to enhance specific characteristics include nickel , molybdenum , copper , titanium , aluminum , silicon , niobium and nitrogen

. stainless steel is also known by many other names like CRES , corrosion - resistant steel or inox steel
Properties
. Stainless steel is a hard substance , it is not a good conductor of heat and electricity .

. A somewhat dark metal , it looks bright because it reflects light .

. Stainless steel does not rust due to exposure to air and moisture , and that is because stainless steel is continuously protected by a layer of chromium oxide that forms naturally on the surface through the combination of chromium and moisture in the air .

. It is ductile , and totally recyclable .
. There are five major types of stainless steel
Ferritic stainless steel
: contains 30 % chromium , it is know to have ferromagnetic properties as well as malleability and ductility .
Martensitic stainless steel
: it is a mixture of carbon and 18 % chromium , it can be hardened by heat treatment , it is known to have ferromagnetic properties and less corrosion resistance .
Precipitation hardening stainless steel
: contains a mixture of nickel and chromium , it is very strong .
Austenitic stainless steel
: is formed by using nitrogen ,manganese and nickel ,it contains about 16 - 26 % chromium , and less than 35 % nickel , it is tough and ductile .
Duplex stainless steel
: chromium and nickel are the main alloying elements in duplex stainless steel , it is corrosin resistant .
Applications
Houseware products
industrical piping
vessels
architectural facades
High carbon steel

. High carbon steel is an alloy of iron and carbon where the content of carbon ranges from 0.6 % to over 2 % .

. High carbon steel has a reputation for being specially hard , but the extra carbon also makes it more brittle than other types of steel

Advantages :

. the hardness levels and metal wear resistance of high carbon steel is also rated very highly .

. Fair formability .
Disadvantages :
. High carbon steel is more brittle than other types of steel , where is the most likely to fracture when misuse , so this type of steel is not recommended for any welding work .
. High carbon steels are also more expensive to produce .
. Formability is quite low .



Applications :
Cutting tools
Masonry nails
Chains , sprockets and gears
wheels for railway service
Medium carbon steel
. Medium carbon steel is carbon steel that contains between 0.3 and 0.6 percent carbon , it also has a manganese content between o.6 and 1.65 percent .

Properties :
A good balance of toughness and ductility
Responds to heat treatment , but is often used in natural conditions
Medium carbon steels ( AISI 1029 - 1053 ) and ( 1541 - 1552 ) can be treated to improve their properties .
Applications :
. Medium carbon steels have numerous applications that strength and ductility are necessary .

Car components such as crankshafts , axles and couplings
Gears
Large metal structures
Low carbon steel
. Low carbon steel is a type of metal that has an alloying element made up relatively low amount of carbon , it has a carbon content that ranges 0.05 % to 0.3 % , and a manganese content that falls between 0.4 % to 1.5 % .
Properties :
This type of steel tends to be more ductile , are easy to bend , punch and easily machined .
Surface hardness can be improved by a process called carburizing which involves heating the alloys in a rich carbon atmosphere , and low carbon steels that are usually carburized are AISI 1015 , 1018 , 1020 , and 1117 .
It is often less expensive than other types of steel
Applications :
Car bodies
Wires
Constructions steel
Tin cans
Almost anything you can think of

Alloy steels

Alloy steel is steel alloyed with a variety of elements in total amount between 1 % to 50 % by weight to improve its mechanical properties .
Alloy steels are broken down into two groups : low- alloy steel and high- alloy steel .
Common alloy steels include manganese , nickel , chromium , molybdenum , vanadium , silicon , aluminum , copper and boron .
.
Manganese
: increases ductility , wear resistance , and slightly strengthens .
.
Nickel
: . increases toughness with little lose of ductility .
. excellent corrosion resistance .
.
Chromium
: . if added in large enough amounts can impart corrosion
resistance , heat resistance , and hardenability .
. other wise , for amounts ( less than 2.11 % ) , it is used to
slightly increase hardenability and strength .
.
Molybdenum
: improves hardenability ,and increases strength under high
temperature conditions by retaining fine grain sizes .
.
Vanadium
: like molybdenum , forms strong carbides at elevated
temperature , also limits grain sizes .
.
Copper
: increases the corrosion resistance
.
Silicon
: . increases strength
. used in magnetic applications
. used in spring steels
.
Boron
: . improves hardenability more hundred times better than nickel
molybdenum and chromium .
. used more for low carbon steels
. improves forming , and in particular in cold forming
Applications :
Military vehicles .
Earthmoving and construction equipments .
Ships .
Oil drilling platforms .
Tool steels
. They are high carbon steels alloys that have been designed to provide wear resistance and , toughness , and resistance to deformation at elevated temperature .

. Tool steels contain cobalt and vanadium in varying quantities .

. There are major types of tool steels such as :
Cold work steels .
Hot work steels .
High speed steels .
Cold work steels
Advantages :
High strength .
Wear resistance .
Cracking tendency is reduced .
Disadvantages :
Generally requires annealing treatment before that can be machined .
After machining , they can retain full hardness at temperatures up to 800 F
Hot work steels
Properties :
They have many of the same properties of cold work steels , with the added advantage that those properties are retained at elevated operating temperature .
High speed steels
Advantages :

High speed steels have all of the properties listed above , but retain those properties where the temperature exceed 1000 F .
Applications :
Wide variety of cutting applications .
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