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# AP Geography Ch. 2: Population

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## Bryan Poepperling

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#### Transcript of AP Geography Ch. 2: Population

AP Geography Ch. 2:
Population

design by Dóri Sirály for Prezi
- Two thirds of the world's inhabitants are clustered in four regions:

1. East Asia

2. South Asia

3. Southeast Asia

4. Europe

- Where is the largest population concentration in the Western Hemisphere?

- Asian and African populations are concentrated around agricultural areas, but European and American populatoins are around cities

- Where are most people concentrated in Africa?
Population Concentrations
1. Where is a majority of Earth's population concentrated?

2. Where is Earth sparsley populated, and why?

3. Explain the difference between arithmetic, physiological, and agricultural density
Ticket Out of the Door
Other Population Clusters
- What is the portion of Earth's surface occupied by permanenet human settlement is called?

- Why don't humans live in Dry, Wet, Cold, and High lands?
- Answer in notebooks by each type of land
Sparsely Populated Regions
- total number of people divided by total land area

- Compute the arithmetic density for the U.S.
- population: 310 million
- Land area: 9.6 million square kilometeres
Population Density
Mr. Poepperling
Standards and Objectives
Unit 2: Population and Migration
1. Describe where Earth's population is concentrated

2. Describe where Earth is sparsley populated

3. Explain what population density is
- What is arithmetic density?

- What is physiological density?

- What is agricultural density?
- The higher it is, the greater the pressure that people may place on the land to produce enough food
- Helps measure economic differences between countries
Lesson 1
Objectives
Lesson 2
1. Explain natural increase and how it relates to population growth

2. Analyze fertility and mortality rates and show how they are important to studying population

3. Analyze a population pyramid and explain how it shows population growth
Objectives
Geographers measure population change
through three measures: (define each in notes)

1.Crude Birth Rate

2.Crude Death Rate

3. Natural Increase Rate

- What is doubling time?
Natural Increase
The word
crude
in crude birth rate and crude death rate means that we are concerned with society as a whole rather than individuals or groups
What is Total Fertility Rate?

Does it vary between MDCs and LDCs?

Fertility
What is infant mortality rate?

How does it differ between MDC's and LDC's?
What is life expectancy?
Why is the combined CDR for all LDC's lower than the combined rate for MDC's?
Mortality
Page 54-55 in Book: Examine
- Natural Increase Rate
- Crude Birth Rate
- Total Fertility Rate
- Infant Mortality Rate
On maps in book
Maps of CBR and CDR
Ticket Out Of The Door
1. How do natural increase rate, Crude Birth Rate, and Crude Death Rate relate to population growth?

2. Why is fertility rate important to population growth, and how does mortality reflect a the successfulness of a country's health-care system?

3.What is a population pyramid and how does it show similarities and differences between dependency ratios of countries?
Chapter 2 Lesson 2
Chapter 2 Lesson 1
Lesson 3
1.Explain the four stages in the Demographic transition process

2. List and explain at least three examples of countries in different stages of demographic transition

3. Explain Malthu's Over-population Theory, its supporters, and its critics
Objectives
The Demographic Transition
Stage 1: Low growth
- Most of human history spent here, no country remains here today
Stage 2: High growth
- CBR remains the same but CDR drops
Stage 3: Moderate growth
- CBR drops but is still greater than the CDR
Stage 4: Low growth
- CBR equals CDR and NIR approaches 0
- Also known as Zero Population Growth

Demorgraphic Transition in England
Demographic Transition
Model
Population Pyramids
http://www.census.gov/population/projections/files/usinterimproj/10PyrmdFL1.pdf
- Population is influenced by the demographic transition in two ways:
1. Age distribution
2. Male to Female (Sex) ratio

- Both can be displayed on a bar graph called a population pyramid
- shape is determined by CBR
Cape Verde: Stage 2

Chile: Stage 3

Denmark: Stage 4
Countries in Different Stages of Demographic Transition
Rapid Growth in Cape Verde
Fig. 2-17: Cape Verde, which entered stage 2 of the demographic transition in about 1950,
is experiencing rapid population growth. Its population history reflects
the impacts of famines and out-migration.

Moderate Growth in Chile
Fig. 2-18: Chile entered stage 2 of the demographic transition in the 1930s, and it entered stage 3 in the 1960s.
Low Growth in Denmark
Fig. 2-19: Denmark has been in stage 4 of the demographic transition since the 1970s, with little population growth since then. Its population pyramid shows increasing numbers of elderly and few children.

- Second half of the twentieth century: population increased rapidly
- Explain stage 5 population growth in notes!

Declining Birth Rates and Population Futures
1. Describe the four stages in the demographic transition process.

2. Name three countries and explain what
stage of transition each country is in.

3.
What is Malthus's overpopulation theory, and what do enthusiasts and critics say about it?
Ticket Out Of
The Door
Chapter 2 Lesson 3
Lesson 4
Objectives
1. Identify and describe each stage of epideiologic transition

2. Explain how a possible stage 5 could exist in the epidemiologic transition model

3. Desribe the reasons for variation in health care around the world
Malthus
on Ovpopulation
-Belived that population was growing much more rapidly
than Earth's food supply - humans need "moral restraint"
Contemporaries:
Critics:
Reality: world food production has consistently
grow at a faster rate than the NIR since 1950
Declining Birth Rates
Some regions in the world do face food shortages; in certain cases it is necessay to decrease the NIR

- No one wants a higher CDR, so the logical sollution is decrease the CBR
- How do you decrease CBR?

1. Improve economic conditions
2. Distribute contraceptives
Promoting One-Child Policy in China
Crude Birth Rate Decline, 1980-2005
Fig. 2-21: Crude birth rates declined in most countries
during the 1980s and 1990s (though the absolute number of births per year increased from about 120 to 130 million).

World Health Threats
Epidemiologic Transition Model
- Focuses on distinctive causes of death in each stage of the demographic transition
What is Epidemiology?
Epidemiologists rely on geographic concepts such as scale and connection to control/prevent an epidemic and understand its method of diffusion
Cholera in London, 1854
Epidemiologic Transition
Stages 1 and 2
- Stage 1: petilence and famine
- Malthus- "natural checks on growth of human population"
- Black Plague- what is it?
Stage 2: receding pandemics
- What is a pandemic?
- Improved sanitation, nutrition, and medicine reduced the spread of diseases
Stages 3 and 4
- Stage 3: increase in degenerative and human-created diseases
- Heart attacks and various forms of cancer
- Stage 4: delayed degenerative diseases- cancer
Stage 5
- Reemergence of infectious and parasitic diseases (AIDS)
- What are 3 reasons why stage 5 could be reemerging?
Ticket Out Of The Door
1. D
escribe each stage of epideiologic transition

2. How can a possible stage 5 exist in the epidemiologic transition model?

3. What are the reasons for variation in health care around the world?
Chapter 2 Lesson 4
http://www.census.gov/popclock/
- Take a guess at the beginning of class and the end how much the population has increased by!
- China, Japan, Korean penninsula, and isalnd of Taiwan (People's Republic of China*)
- Population is distributed unevenly

- India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka
- 3/4 of popultion is in India

- Islands of Java, Sumatra, Borneo, Papua New
Guinea, and the Philippines

- Four dozen countries throughout Europe and Russia
- 3/4 live in cities
- England, Germany, Belgium have
largest populations
- Use the maps to help answer the questions!
- Approximately 3/4 of the world's population live on
only 5 percent of Earth's surface**
- Human beings avoid clustering in
certain physical environments
- Ecumene
- The number of people occupying an area of land
Malthu's theory is more true today because of medical technology in poorer countries and overuse of a wider variety of resources
Resource supplies throughout the world are
expanding, and a larger population is necessary
to stimulate economic and agricultural growth
- Summarize and expalin two approaches to reducing birth rates in your notes
1. Education and health
= lower birth rates

2. Conraction use
=lower birth rates
-What does the future of population growth look like for the world?
India's Population
Policies
Vs.
China's Population
Policies
*Socratic Seminar*
Health Care and Medical Services World Wide
What are two indicators of health in a country?
- Infant mortality rate
- Life Expectancy
Why do men have lower life expectancies than women in most countries?
- Explain the reasons for variation in health between developed and developing countries in your notes
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