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Health

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Alivia Johnson

on 18 May 2015

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Transcript of Health

The Health Triangle
Mental Health
Social Health
Physical Health
how you get along and associate with others and interact in your environment
includes people you associate with and your environment
seek and lend support as needed
communicate clearly and listen to others
show respect and care for yourself and others
how your body functions
having enough energy to perform daily activities, deal with stress, and avoid injury
get 8-10 hours of sleep per night
eat nutritious meals
drink 8 cups of water daily
30-60 minutes of physical activity daily
avoid drugs
bathe, floss, and brush teeth daily
Nutrition
Safe Haven Law
The purpose of this law is to prevent infant deaths as a result of abandonment or homicide by providing a means by which an infant may be left in safe circumstances.
allows parents to hand over their child to an employee at any designated emergency care facility
if the parent is not able to travel, they can call 911 and the infant will be picked up
Safe Haven Law
Details
designated emergency care facilities include: hospitals, health units, emergency medical service providers, medical clinics, fire stations, police stations, pregnancy crisis centers, and child advocacy centers
the parent must hand child to an employee and say they want to utilize the Safe Haven Law
the child must be 61 days old or younger
infants may not show any signs of abuse or neglect
parents do not have to give any information
within 30 days of relinquishment, parents can change their mind and get the child back
Drugs
Prescription Drugs
prescription drugs are those dispensed only with the written approval of a licensed physician or nurse-practitioner
these medicines provide only the amount you need to treat your condition
Over the Counter Drugs
these are medicines you can buy without a doctor's prescription
they are safe if you use them as the label directs
Illegal Drugs
Alcohol
alcohol is a drug found in certain beverages that depresses the brain and nervous system
alcohol is made by fermentation- a process in which yeast acts on sugars
BAC
BAC (blood alcohol concentration) is the amount of alcohol in a person's blood
factors that affect BAC include weight, alcohol consumption, the speed the alcohol was consumed, percent body fat, gender, feelings, amount of food eaten, presence of other drugs, age, carbonated beverages
Effects of Alcohol
causes you to make wrong decisions
gives you a false sense of self-confidence
interferes with judgement
makes you feel invincible
increases likelihood of giving in to negative peer pressure
intensifies sexual feelings and dulls reasoning
slows reaction time and affects coordination
causes aggressive behavior and an increase in violence
intensifies emotions
Alcohol Continued
Alcoholism
alcoholism is a disease in which there is physical and psychological dependence on alcohol
Treatments for Alcoholism
Alcoholics Anonymous: a recovery program for people who have friends or family with alcoholism
Alateen: a recovery program for teens who have friends or family with alcoholism
Tobacco
tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable death and disability in the US
all tobacco products contain nicotine, a stimulant and an addictive drug
tobacco is a carcinogen, a cancer-causing substance
tobacco contains tar, a thick, sticky, dark fluid that is produced when tobacco is burned and damages a smoker's respiratory system
tobacco contains carbon monoxide, a colorless, odorless gas that increases the risk of high blood pressure and heart disease
Effects of Tobacco
Pipes, Cigars, Smokeless Tobacco
cigars contain significantly more nicotine and produce more tar and carbon monoxide than cigarettes
smokeless tobacco is sniffed in the nose, held in the mouth, or chewed
harmful chemicals of smokeless tobacco are absorbed into the body at levels up to three times the amount of one cigarette
Short-Term Effects
changes brain chemistry
increases respiration and heart rate
taste buds are dulled
appetite is reduced
bad breath
yellow teeth
smelly hair, skin, and clothes
Long-Term Effects
bronchitis
emphysema
stroke
lung cancer
coronary heart disease
weak immune system
deals with feelings and thoughts
enjoy beneficial challenges
accept responsibility for actions
have sense of control over life
express emotions appropriately
can usually deal with stress and frustration
have a positive outlook
make thoughtful and responsible decisions
Mental Disorders
Bipolar Disorder
Schizophrenia
Depression
depression is a prolonged feeling of helplessness, hopelessness, and sadness
Types of Depression
Major Depression- intense and can last for months
Mild Depression- less severe symptoms but can last for years
Adjustment Disorder- reaction to a specific life event
Causes of Depression
physical, psychological, or social reasons
medical conditions
experiencing a traumatic event
living in a harmful environment
Symptoms
changes in thinking: trouble concentrating and making decisions; may have self-destructive thoughts
changes in feelings: experiencing a lack of strong feeling or concern; may not enjoy the things you once did
changes in behavior: eating too little or too much; trouble thinking; neglecting hygiene
Depression is serious but treatable; it takes time, persistence, and patience.
Sources
http://www.helpguide.org/articles/bipolar-disorder/bipolar-disorder-signs-and-symptoms.htm
http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/bipolar-disorder-in-adults/index.shtml?rf
Signs/Symptoms
extreme mood changes
extreme behaviorial changes
overly long happy mood
extreme irritation
talking very fast
having racing thoughts
being unusually distracted
being overly restless
sleeping little or not being tired
behaving impulsively
could lead to bipolar depression
Treatments
There are many drugs available that help treat bipolar disorder. If those drugs don't work, Electroconvulsive Therapy is also available.
Signs/Symptoms
delusions
hallucinations
disorganized thinking and speech
abnormal and extreme behaviors
lack of ability to function normally
lack of emotion
withdrawal from friends and family
trouble sleeping
loss of interest in everyday activities
Treatments
http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/schizophrenia/basics/symptoms/con-20021077
Schizophrenia requires lifelong treatment, and there are many drugs and therapies to treat it.
Weight Management
Nutrients
Food Guide
Eating Disorders
Calorie Counting
Food Labels
nutrients are substances in food that your body needs to grow, to repair itself, and to supply you with energy
Carbohydrates
carbohydrates are starches and sugars found in foods, which provide your body's main source of energy
Types of Carbs
Simple
sugars
occur naturally in fruits, dairy, honey, and syrup
Complex
starches
long chains of sugars linked together
common sources include grains, pasta, bread, beans, and root vegetables
Fiber
tough complex carb that the body cannot digest
helps you feel full
can reduce the risk of cancer, heart disease, and diabetes
recommended 20-35 grams a day
good sources include grains, nut, seeds, and legumes
Roles of Carbs
your body turns carbs into simple sugar, also known as glucose, which is used and stored as energy
experts recommend getting 45-65 percent of your daily calories from carbs
Proteins
proteins are nutrients made up of chemicals called amino acids that the body uses to build and maintain its cells and tissues
Types of Proteins
Incomplete Proteins
the body uses about 20 amino acids that are found in food
you produce all but 9 amino acids that are needed
these are called essential amino acids
Complete Proteins
usually from animal sources
contain all the essential amino acids
Roles of Proteins
proteins are the basic building material of all you body cells
the protein hemoglobin in your red blood cells carries oxygen to all you body cells
proteins may function as hormones
teen boys ages 14-18 should consume about 52 grams of protein a day
teen girls ages 14-18 should consume about 46 grams of protein a day
Fats
Types of Fats
Unsaturated
examples: vegetable oils, nuts, seeds
eating unsaturated fats in moderate amounts may lower your risk of heart disease
Saturated
found mostly in animal-based foods such as meat and dairy products
causes heart disease
Trans Fat
formed by a process called hydrogenation, which causes vegetable oil to harden, and as it hardens the fats become more saturated
examples: stick margarine, snack foods, packaged baked goods
they can raise your blood cholesterol level
now listed on food labels
Roles of Fats
provide a concentrated form of energy
help brain development, blood clotting, and control inflammation
help maintain healthy skin and hair
help absorb vitamins in the body
provide insulation
Vitamins
vitamins are compounds found in food that help regulate many body processes
can be either water or fat soluble
Vitamin A helps your eyesight
Vitamin B helps your body make energy from foods
Vitamin C helps your body heal when you have a cut and strengthens the immune system
Vitamin D helps strengthen your bones
Vitamin E acts as an antioxidant and helps prevent Alzheimer's
http://kidshealth.org/kid/stay_healthy/food/vitamin.html
Minerals
minerals are elements found in food that are used by the body
you must get minerals from food
calcium helps prevent osteoporosis
sodium helps establish a proper fluid balance
phosphorous is important for healthy bones and teeth
magnesium is needed for making proteins
Water
helps move food through the digestive system
helps digest carbs and protein
aids chemical reactions in the body
lubricates the joints
cools the body
helps get rid of waste
protects tissues
recommended 8 cups a day
http://www.cdc.gov/nutrition/
Anorexia
an eating disorder characterized by an extremely low body weight, an intense fear of gaining weight, and a distorted perception of body weight
people with anorexia use extreme efforts to lose weight, prevent weight gain, and to eat a very minimal amount
Bulimia
an eating disorder in which a person has regular episodes of overeating followed by making themselves throw up or using laxatives to prevent weight gain
they may also start exercising excessively
Overeating
a eating disorder in which a person overeats frequently but doesn't do anything to prevent weight gain
they usually feel distressed or depressed during or after bingeing
usually caused by something bad happening in the person's life and they turn to food for comfort
a calorie is a unit of heat used to measure the energy your body uses and the energy it receives from food
teenage females need about 2,000-2,400 calories a day depending on activity level
teenage males need about 2,400-3,000 calories depending on activity level
carbs have 4 calories per gram
fats have 9 calories per gram
proteins have 4 calories per gram
ingredients are listed on food labels in order from the greatest to least amount included
they show how many grams/ounces/etc are in the product
food labels list the amount of calories, fat, protein, carbs, vitamins, minerals, etc. in the product and the percent daily value of each
they give a recommended serving size and how many servings are in the whole product
to manage weight, eat the amount of calories required for your gender, age, and activity level
participate in physical activity for about an hour a day
make healthy choices
don't drink your calories
limit how much you eat out
pay attention to nutrition labels
Suicide
Signs
if they talk about wanting to kill themselves
increased use of alcohol or drugs
withdrawing from activities
isolating themselves from family and friends
sleeping too much or too little
giving away possessions
being agitated
having a loss of interest
Prevention
http://www.afsp.org/preventing-suicide
if you hear anything about suicide, take it seriously
an angry friend is better than a dead friend
be a good listener
report anything you hear to a trusted adult
drugs that have limitations on their use or ownership by the government
examples include marijuana, heroin, opium, cocaine, amphetamine, mushrooms, etc.
cause many health problems, nausea, possible hallucinations, seizures, strokes, impaired judgement, aggressiveness, etc.
Diseases
Communicable
a disease that is spread from one living organism to another or through the environment (contagious)
Non-Communicable
a disease that is not spread from person to person; not contagious
Communicable Continued
caused by pathogens entering the body
Pathogens
viruses- pieces of genetic material that are surrounded by a protein coat that invade the cells of living organisms
bacteria- single-celled microorganisms that can be harmless, harmful, or beneficial
fungi- plant-like organisms that cause disease of the lungs, mucous membranes, and skin
protozoa- single-celled microorganisms that are large and more complex than bacteria
rickettsias- resemble bacteria; enter through bug bites
How Diseases Are Spread
Direct Contact
being in direct contact with another person
wounds
Indirect Contact
contaminated objects
vectors- organisms that carry and transmit pathogens
contaminated food and water
Airborne Transmission
spread through sneezes or coughs
Cardiovascular Disease
Causes
unhealthy diet
lack of exercise
being overweight
smoking
drug/alcohol abuse
By eating healthily, exercising regularly, and staying away from drugs and alcohol, you can prevent
CPR Continued
Adult
1 Rescuer: 30 compressions (at least 2 inches deep) to 2 breaths
2 Rescuers: 30 compressions (at least 2 inches deep) to 2 breaths
Child
1 Rescuer: 30 compressions (1/3 the depth of the chest) to 2 breaths
2 Rescuers: 15 compressions (1/3 the depth of the chest) to 2 breaths
Infant
1 Rescuer: 30 compressions (about 1 1/2 inches deep) to 2 breaths
2 Rescuers: 15 compressions (about 1 1/2 inches deep) to 2 breaths
CPR
use CPR on anyone who is unresponsive, without a pulse
first rescuer who arrives on the scene should make sure the scene is safe
then check for pulse
for adults and children, the compressions should be on the lower half of the sternum using 2 hands
for infants, the compressions should be given right below the nipple line using two fingers
when there are 2 rescuers, they switch compressions and air-giving after about 5 minutes
Goal Setting
goals are things you aim for that take planning and work
Reaching Your Goal
action plan- a multi-step strategy to identify and achieve your goal
set a specific goal and write it down
list steps you will take to reach your goal
identify sources of help and support
set a reasonable time frame for achieving it
evaluate your progress by establishing checkpoints
reward yourself for achieving your goal
Communication Skills
Interpersonal Skills
the exchange of thoughts, feelings, and beliefs between people
use "I" messages to express feelings
communicate with respect and caring
be an active listener
Refusal Skills
communication strategies that can help you say no when you are urged to take part in behaviors that are unsafe
all aspects of health are affected by your environment, family, friends, attitude, behavior, and media and technology
Full transcript