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Development and It's Implications to Learning

Growing and Learning Theories Application in the Classroom
by

E Bar

on 16 July 2013

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Transcript of Development and It's Implications to Learning

how the mind manages data
Vygotsky
Information-Processing Theory
Learning Theories
Birth to 1 year
Brain
- Midbrain & Medulla fully developed, developing cortex, Synaptogenesis at rapid rate (neuron connections)
Body
- Primitive reflexes, 5 senses, regulation of body functions, adding 10-12 inches in length, triple body weight, Gross motor developing, early fine motor skills develop
Brain
- frontal lobes of cerebral cortex develop
Body
- Start of secretion of growth and sex hormones, fine motor skills gaining, gross motor skills developing rapidly
Body
- steady weight gain and added height, gross motor skills and becoming skilled in fine motor skills
Brain
- 75% of growth and development takes place mostly in cortex, primary senses & basic motor skills almost fully developed
Physical Development
Social Development
Responding to Experience with family members and surroundings
Emotional Expression
- smiling, waving bye-bye, expressing excitement or distaste
Temperament - differences in the way babies react
Toddler to 5 years
Cognitive Development
Environmental influence produces early learning
- conditioning
- schematic learning
Age 6 to 11 years
Age 12-15 years
Age 16+ years
Brain
- Prefrontal cortex starts to develop
Body
- Onset of puberty, growth of heart & lungs (promote stamina), growth spurt of 3-6 inches/yr (9-15 years old), proportion of fat based on gender
Brain
- Frontal lobes of cerebral cortex develop, unused connections die and brain becomes more specialized & efficient
Body
- Muscle and bone mass increase substantially, coordination and strength close to peak
Spatial perceptual skills
Spatial cognition - possibly dependent on types of play
Spatial perception
Sensory and motor function
Improved attention
Dependence to independence
Social maturity through this stage
Parallel play
Sharing
Taking turns
Friendships
Peer pressure
Teamwork - sports, classes
Play by the rules
Logic capacity developing

Ability to deal with complexity/abstract thought

Planning
Memory development
Logical thinking developing
Fluency in speaking & understanding language
Goal directed planning begins
Imitates others
Loving/Caring environment for positive social growth
Emotional maturity gains and impulse control still maturing

Risk taking decreasing as brain develops

Intimacy with sexual maturity
Social
Cognitive
Cognitive
Social
Cognitive
Cognitive
Social
Analytical abilities expanding
Inadequate ability to judge risk and make long-term plans.
Ability to craft models/projects
How do we learn?
Prezi by Elaine
Sensory
info
Sensory
Memory
Info selected
for processing
Short-term
memory
Long-term
memory
Info
to be stored
permanently
Info needed to
understand new info
Techniques for processing
new info
Theories of Development
Psychoanalytic Theories
Freud's
Psychosexual stages
Erikson's 8
Psychosocial stages
defense mechanisms
degree of success through stages determines personality
oral, anal, phallic, genital
trust vs. mistrust
autonomy vs. shame
initiative vs. guilt
industry vs. inferiority
identity vs. role confusion
intimacy vs. isolation
generativity vs. stagnation
ego integrity vs. despair
Piaget
Cognitive Theories
Creates stories using imagination
Emotional
Expresses
feelings and
emotions
Explores pretend & reality
Can begin to control behavior

Physical
In the Classroom
-
Please don't compare your students!
(different developmental pace)

-
allow student 5 seconds to answer your question!
- ask everyone to put up a thumb if they know the answer and not shout it out (brain processing time different for all)

- model thinking of task at hand
reading a book - look at cover, What does it tell you? picture walk, What do you think will happen next? Did you like the ending? Let's make up a new ending!
In the Classroom
Physical
Emotional
Thrill seeking behavior

Greater independence

Sexuality

Identity - womanhood and manhood
Case Study -
Brad's messy work
Physical
Emotional
Social
Self-esteem-
based on ability to perform & produce
Sensitive to other's opinions
self-doubt
identity experimentation
rebellion/emotional
Physical achievement promotes positive self-worth
self-conscious about physical appearance
Age 16+ years
Emotional
Physical
Age 12-15 years
Age 6-11 years
Toddler to 5 years
Identity formation
social conscience
ethical behavior
Activity
Instructions to follow!!
Questions ????
&
Girls and Boys may learn differently
- be ready to alter your approach

Model thinking of task at hand
Math problem - get out the manipulatives, think and say steps out loud as you proceed, then repeat it in written form.

Create self-directed learners (brain-based)
Learn by experimenting and asking questions
Adult models and structures child's learning experience (scaffolding)

Zone of Proximal development - wider and wider as tasks are learned
Reasoning in 4 stages with different scheme
Sensorimotor
Preoperational
Concrete Operational
Formal Operational
Classical Conditioning
learning through stimuli

Operant Conditioning
behavior changes brought about by reward and punishment

Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory
observational learning, think alouds, modeling of behavior sought
Full transcript