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Stress and Anxiety, Their Causes, Symptoms and Effects on Sports Performance

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Leah Newell

on 20 November 2014

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Transcript of Stress and Anxiety, Their Causes, Symptoms and Effects on Sports Performance

Stress and Anxiety, Their Causes, Symptoms and Effect on Sports Performance
By: Leah Newell
"Stress is a pattern of negative physiological states and psychological response occurring in situations where people perceive threats to their well-being, which they may be unable to meet."
Lazarus and Folkman, 1984
Good form of stress
Feeling of fulfillment.
Seeked out by some athletes as it challenges them to their limits.
Bad form of stress
Main form of stress
Form of anxiety, nervousness apprehension and worry.
These are a result of perceived inability to meet the demands in a sport.
The Effects of Stress on Performance
There are four stages of which stress effects performance.
Stage 1
This is where some form of demand from the athlete.
Stage 2
The athlete will then perceive this demand either positively or negatively. A positive perception will be seen as a challenge and a negative will be seen as a threat. This is when the positive or negative perception will determine the performance outcome.
Stage 3
In this stage the arousal levels will increased by the athletes perception. Positive perception will lead eustress (increased energy and motivation), negative perception will lead distress (increased worry).
Stage 4
This final stage will determine the outcome of the athletes performance whether it is increased performance due to positive perception or reduced performance due negative perception.
Causes of Stress
Psychological factors
Not enough sleep
Overly self-critical
Negative social interactions
Major life events
Day-to-day hassles
Job Satisfaction
Disagreement with manager
Dropped from the team
Sports Environment
Symptoms of Stress
The way in which you respond depends on how you view the threat, the response is controlled by two parts of the nervous system: the sympathetic nervous system, responsible for 'fight or flight', and the parasympathetic nervous system, helps you to relax.
Sympathetic Nervous System
Blood diverted to working muscles to provide more oxygen
Increased heart rate
Increased breathing rate
Increased heat production
Increased adrenaline production
Increased muscle tension
Hairs stand on end
Dilated pupils
Slowed digestion
Increased metabolism
Dry Mouth
Parasympathetic Nervous System
Makes muscles relax
Slows metabolism
Increased digestion rate
Decreased body temperature
Decreased heart rate
Constricts the pupils
Increases saliva production
Decreased breathing rate
After stress has passes, the parasympathetic nervous system begins to work, helping you to relax. It does this by:
"Anxiety is a negative emotional state that is either characterised by, or associated with, feelings or nervousness, apprehension or worry."
BTEC Level 3 Sport Book 1
There are two main types of anxiety:
Trait Anxiety
'A behavioral tendency to feel threatened even in situations that are not really threatening, and then to respond to this with high level of state anxiety.'
'Trait Anxiety is an aspect of personality and part of an individuals pattern of behaviour.'
State Anxiety
'A temporary, ever-changing mood state that is an emotional response to any situation considered to be threatening.'
There are two types of state anxiety; Cognitive start anxiety - is the amount you worry.
Somatic state anxiety - relates to your perception of the physiological changes that happen in a particular situation.
Symptoms of Anxiety
Effects of Anxiety of Sports Performance
'On going transaction between an individual and the enviroment demands associated primarily and directly with personal life events'
BTEC Level 3 Sport Book 1 BTEC National
There are two key aspects of a sporting environment and performance that cause stress; the importance of the event and the amount of uncertainty that surrounds it.
Causes of Anxiety
Cognitive somatic anxiety is the negative thoughts, nervousness and worry which is experiences in some situations. Symptoms include:
Concentration problems
Fear of Failure
Bad decision-making.
Nervous Feelings
Cognitive Somatic Anxiety
Somatic State Anxiety
'Somatic state anxiety relates to the perception or interpretation of physiological changes. Symptoms include:
Increased Heart Rate
Increased Body Heat
Increased Breathing Rate
Increased Muscle Tension
Symptoms of Stress
Talking Rapidly
Short Tempered
Nervous actions
- Twitching
- Nail Biting
- Foot Tapping
- Pacing
Muscle Tension
High Blood Pressure
Shortness of Breath
Low Energy
Effects of Stress on Sports Performance
The Sympathetic Nervous System
The Parasympathetic Nervous System
Increased Heart Rate
Increased Breathing Rate
Increased Muscle Tension
Slowed Digestion
Slows Metabolism
Decreases Body Temperature
Constricts the Pupils
Decreases Heart Rate
Stress effects sporting performance by effecting the concentration, confidence and mental state of an athlete.
There are many things that can cause anxiety in an athlete:
Expectations placed upon them
Fear of feedback
Failing and Poor performance
Tending to avoid people/ be part of a team
Become quiet
Creating excuses for poor performance
Negative Mental State
Negative mental state is linked together with worry and apprehension, this is likely to effect performance is the negative mental state is too great.
Sports Performance
Sports performance is likely to be affected by anxiety by a decrease in performance levels. This is due to:
Reduction of Concentration
Co-ordination errors.
However, some symptoms of anxiety can have a positive effect such as increased blood flow and breathing rate
Anxiety can have many effects upon an athletes sporting performance, such as; negative mental state, loss of self-confidence, decreased expectations of success and fear of failure.
Dropped Concentraiton Levels
Memory Problems
Negative self-talk
Feeling Irritable, frustrated, restless
Poor Judgement
Health and Lifestyle Choices/ Decisions
Financial Situations
Pressure of losing a game
Dealing with Penalties
Importance of a game
This is a video of Lance Armstrong talking about his struggles with surviving cancer.
This is a video of a hostile sporting enviroment which will cause stress to some players.
These two athletes, Paul Scholes and Mike Tyson fall into the category of Trait Anxiety as they are stable.
Paul Scholes has a trait of being rarely stressed whereas Mike Tyson has a trait of being highly stressed.
Trait Anxiety
State Anxiety
Zinedine Zidane is usually a calm person but in some situations can flip out. For example, in the 2006 World Cup Final Zinedine Zidane was sent off for headbutting Italys' Marco Materazzi.
This article shows Ronaldo talking his occupation and the stresses that go with it saying he is a 'Slave'.
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