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Supporting Early Literacy 0-5

EDU10002 Assessment 2

jessica fandrich

on 13 December 2015

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Transcript of Supporting Early Literacy 0-5

Language & Literacy Development
Seb, sharks and fishes (5.5 years)
Orson has lunch with Mum (16 months)
Charlotte has nappy changed (3.5 months)
Matty, cars and trucks (3.5 years)
This presentation will examine the development of language and literacy, and how strategies of emergent literacy can support children in their development. Five of the children that are featured in the video
Supporting Early Literacy 0-5
(Siren Films, 2009) aged from 3.5 months to 5.5 years, will be the focus. Their language and literacy development will be reviewed. Emergent literacy strategies connected to curriculum models and approaches will be suggested for each child to expand their language and literacy development.

Megan Taylor

What particularly captures the child’s interest?

Language development observations
What other areas of development can you observe, and how do these relate to language development?
Strategies using emergent literacy approach to develop the child's
language and literacy in an Early Learning Setting.
Linking strategies to curriculum models and approaches?
What resources might you use?
Jessica Fandrich
Angela Chrysanthou
What particularly captures the child’s interest?
Language Development Observations
How are these strategies connected to curriculum models and approaches?
During the segment, Orson's father encouraged Orson to think about what he may have for lunch.
This shows Orson ability to listen and responded.
During the film
Supporting Early Literacy 0-5
(Siren Films, 2009). Orson 2.5 years old demonstrates an interest in running his hand along the shed roof also known as the make believe castle.

What particularly captures the child's interests
Strategies using emergent literacy approach to develop the child's
language and literacy in an Early Learning Setting.
Linking strategies to Curriculum Models and approaches.
What resources might you use?
Keegan Brouwer
Social and Emotional
In a relaxed and familiar setting, at home, Seb sits with his Mum at a table. He creatively glues buttons and beads onto a board, in the shapes of a shark and fishes, whilst engaging in discussion.
What particularly captures the child's interest?
Family Photo Album
Language development observations.
What other areas of development can you observe, and how do these relate to language development?
Social and Emotional
Strategies using emergent literacy approach to develop the child's
language and literacy in an Early Learning Setting.
What resources might you use?
During this segment, Orson demonstrates an interest in being placed at the top of the make believe castle.
This shows Orson has the ability to use Dramatic/imaginative play.
During the segment Orson is interested in his surroundings and noises, he show's this interest by 'pointing' to his surroundings; asking his father, "whats this?" ( )
This demonstrates Orson has the ability to hear and see.

What other areas of development can you observe, and how do these relate to language development?
Rebekah Golding
(Siren Films, 2009)
During the segment "Matty, cars and trucks," Matty is looking through a family photo album, discussing what he can see with his mother. Matty's interest is mainly captivated by the photo album itself, and the photographs in which he can relate to. Matty is aged 3 1/2 years.
As Matty looks through the album, his attention is focused on certain photographs. They include photos of Matty's birthday, family car and Sammy the dog. These are all photographs of things that Matty can remember and relate to.
Matty excitedly tells his mother that he can see the family car in one of the photographs. He is a little confused of the colour, and is corrected by his mother. Matty's focus is then turned to a car that is parked outside the home, and what colour it is.
Matty’s interest is also captivated by the type of truck that towed the family car away. At first he thought it was a dump truck. Following discussion with his mother, he agreed it was in fact a tow truck.
Matty shows the use of sentences containing a variety of different words, demonstrating an extensive vocabulary. He actively takes part in conversations.
Matty has the ability to ask and think about answers to simple questions.
Matty enjoys telling and listening to stories.
Matty shows the ability to talk constantly.
Matty enjoys talking. He is willing to experiment with new words.
In regards to the EYLF, observations of Matty's language development can be linked through the range and access of technologies provided to children. It is through the use of information and communication technologies that children access information, explore ideas and challenge their thinking (DEEWR, 2009). This ultimately results in further language development.
Ability to answer simple questions.
Naming different colours.
Long attention span.
Recalling past events.
Smiling and cooperating with others.
Manipulates an object jointly with another person.
Giving self praise and being boastful.

Social interaction is a major contributing factor towards a child's language development. This is supported by theorists such as Bruner, Vygotsky and Skinner (Kearns, 2010). Children tend to speak freely when in a comfortable environment with feelings of self worth and security (McChado, 2013). Matty displays a strong bond with his mother, and is comfortable in exploring his language through discussing the photographs with her.
Language Development Observations
(Broomes.G, n.d)
Social And Emotional
Orson and the castle
Orson and the Castle
Orson and the castle
Orson and the castle
During the segment Orson and the Castle; Orson demonstrates many forms of language development; these include:

Orson can use 2-3 words, when responding to his father.
Repeating words. For instance, 'Whats going on?'

Responding to simple questions. For instance, 'What would you like for lunch? Boogar (Burger).'

Orson can name common objects.
Strategies using emergent literacy approach to develop the child's
language and literacy in an Early Learning Setting.
Strategies using emergent literacy approach to develop the child's language and literacy in an Early Learning Setting.
Connecting strategies to curriculum
models and approaches
Language Development Observations
What resources might you use?
Theorists have strong opposing views towards the connection of cognitive development and language development (Khan Academy Medicine, 2013). However, it is agreed that thought and language are closely related (McChado, 2013.) Matty displays strong cognitive development through listening and thinking about what his mother is saying. He thinks about her questions before answering. He can recall and think about certain photographs, and express these thoughts through his developing language.
Dramatic Play
Interactive Story Telling
Interactive storytelling with puppets can be linked to the Waldorf approach. This approach supports the idea of young children learning through imitation and doing, and the use of oral (never written) language as an educational focus (Edwards, 2002).
Using puppets to tell a story removes the need for written language use. It engages the students, and gets them actively involved when the teacher adds thoughtful questioning about the storyline.

Dramatic play can be linked to the Waldorf, Reggio and Montessori curriculum approaches. Through the Waldorf approach, Steiner believed that children Matty's age learn through imitation and doing. He believed that dramatic play is the most important aspect towards a child's development (Edwards, 2002). Reggio's approach also highlights the importance of dramatic play. Teachers of this method do not directly focus instruction towards reading and writing. However, they adapt emergent literacy through children manipulating ideas and communicating with others. For example, participating in activities such as dramatic play, in which encourage children to express ideas and feelings through language (Edwards, 2002).

At the beginning of the video, Charlotte’s dad is immediately talking to her and is making conversation with her. Charlotte appears to be very engaged in her Dad's talking.
“Smile for daddy”, he says to Charlotte. Since her Dad is smiling as he asked Charlotte to smile for him, she is able to mimic his facial expression. She immediately smiles and starts moving both arms up and down. She begins to make babbling noises.

Charlotte’s Dad starts tickling her and giving Charlotte big smiles. Charlotte starts to giggle and smile. She uses her gross motor skills and moves her arms and legs around as she is being tickled on her stomach.

Charlotte’s Dad holds up her top to show Charlotte what she will be wearing. As her Dad is asking her if she likes this top, Charlotte moves her eyes from side to side to look at her Dad. When her Dad is putting the top on, Charlotte puts her left arm out and attempts to put it through the sleeve. Charlotte seems to have become familiar with this action as it is part of her daily routine. When her Dad holds up Charlotte’s sock to put it on her foot, Charlotte lifts her left leg up, knowing that is where the sock is meant to go.

Charlotte is able to make babbling noises. This is how she demonstrates and develops her language skills. Charlotte tries to imitate her Dad’s tongue movement by parting her lips and pushing her tongue forward.
A range of props for interactive story telling. For example, these could include puppets, soft toys, play dough or even the children themselves in dress up costumes. Matty may like to use the toy car or truck props, as he showed interest in vehicles during the video.

An enticing play environment filled with many dramatic play opportunities. This area should be carefully prepared, uncluttered and aesthetically pleasing (Edwards, 2002). Waldorf play equipment is carefully chosen with colour, natural material and minimal detail kept in mind to encourage imagination (Edwards,2002).
LEARNING 4 KIDS, (2014).
Sea Creatures
Craft and Shapes
Visual Literacy

Use non-verbal communication by pointing and 'verbal' communication by babbling,
He can answer simple questions from his Mum for example, nodding his head when his Mum asks if he wants more sweet potato.
Can imitate Mum when she says 'oh oh'.

Pretend Play, (2011).
Orson points to objects when prompted

Orson shakes and bangs his spoon and fork.

Orson searches for dropped spoon on floor.
Social and Emotional
Orson co-operates for Mum when she asks him not to throw the spoon.

When Mum says 'oh oh' after Orson drops his spoon, he repeats and shows some remorse for doing the wrong thing.
Montessori Approach
The Montessori approach is based on sensory exploration (Swinburne Online, 2015). By using sand paper letters and alphabet boards, multi-sensory skills would develop and the child will gain an understanding of the shape of letters, their sounds and gain muscular memory for the shape of the letters, in preparation for writing. By doing so, they will develop their intelligence and independence on their own and in their own time (Edwards, 2002).

Dramatic Play
It is unanimous that dramatic play is an essential strategy for language and literacy development in children. It is supported by theorists such as Bruner and Vygotsky (Kearns, 2010). Children participate in dramatic play when they pretend to be someone or something else (Ece211students, 2012). Using their imagination, children can act out everyday situations. This assists in building their vocabulary and communication skills (Ece211students, 2012).
Frequent interactive story telling can build positive disposition, oral language skills and print knowledge, all of which are fundamental for early reading. It also builds on resources and prior knowledge for children to use in writing (Lennox, 2012).
Interactive story telling is where the teacher adds thoughtful questioning to help children understand what is not explicitly said in the storyline. It promotes further thought and problem solving (Lennox, 2012).
An appropriate area for children in an early childhood setting would need to be highly organised and rich with activities such as arts, crafts and drawing. The activities would not need to be entirely structured, but rather 'laid back' (Montessori Australia, n.d).
Hands-on activities, such as playing with alphabet boards and tracing sand paper letters with their fingers, will help in developing fine motor skills and hand-eye co-ordination (Daily Montessori, 2015), which will in turn assist in developing emergent literacy and language skills.

Interactive Story Telling
Dramatic Play
Sense of identity,
Connect and contribute to their world,
Sense of well being.
Confident and involved learners.
Effective communicators (Connor, n.d.).
A strategy which would be suitable for children in an early childhood setting, to develop language and literacy skills, would be dramatic play. Dramatic play is symbolic and particularly important for a child to demonstrate and discover themselves and their background along with learning about others around them and their place in the world (Rowell, n.d.).

The most important thing to do, when organising dramatic play, is to relate the activity to something the child knows in their life. For example, guide the child through a 'cooking class'. With guidance, the child can set the table for the food that has been 'cooked' (Sullivan, n.d).

The dramatic play will assist to strengthen their vocabulary, by listening to guidance from the educator, which will in turn advance their skills in language and later literacy development (Cecchini, n.d).
Charlotte can make small throaty noises. She is able to imitate her Dad’s tongue movement when he is talking to her. Charlotte was able to copy the sound her Dad was making and once she achieved that she started to laugh. Charlotte would make babbling sounds to her Dad in a way of communicating non-verbally. This is related to the Early Years Learning Framework, Outcome 5 – Children interact verbally and non-verbally with a range of purpose (DEEWR, 2009). Charlotte was engaging in an enjoyable interaction with her dad.
Charlotte was full of smiles and laughter as she had one-on-one time with her Dad. As her Dad was talking to her, Charlotte would look towards the direction that the sound was coming from. Her eyes would follow her Dad when he moved around the nappy changing table. Charlotte began to repeat actions that happen in her daily routine, such as getting dressed.

Charlotte displays cognitive development by turning her head and looking toward the direction that her Dad's voice is coming from. Charlotte imitates her Dad’s tongue movement as she is being spoken to. Charlotte is using her mouth and tongue to make different sounds. These are the very early stages of language development.

Charlotte smiles and laughs as her Dad interacts with her. She is able to make eye-contact with her Dad as he is changing her clothes. Charlotte would move her head around to follow the sound of her Dad's voice. Charlotte is beginning to show language development by displaying eye-contact when she is engaged in conversation.

Charlotte can move hers arms and legs up and down. As her Dad gently tickled her, she squirmed using whole body movement. When her Dad held her top up just above her body, Charlotte was able to grasp the object with her left hand. Repeating the names of everyday objects to Charlotte will encourage word recognition.
Communicating and interacting with young children is essential for developing their language and literacy skills. It is important to talk to your child about what you are doing in their everyday routines. To help encourage speech, try to make vowel-like and consonant-vowel sounds such as "ma," "da," and "ba." Whilst interacting with the child, try and maintain eye contact and respond to their speech. Teach the child to imitate actions by playing finger games. Introduce games such as, pat-a-cake, peek-a-boo, and the itsy-bitsy-spider. Children will become strong in their social and emotional wellbeing (DEEWR, 2009).

Sensory play allows the child to use their five senses. By stimulating the senses, it helps the child improve their language skills and basic motor skills. A good sensory activity for infants would be blowing bubbles. The child will turn their heads following the bubbles. Throughout this experience, make popping sounds which will encourage speech development in the child.
(Two hands Kids crafts, n.d)
Natural intelligence,
'Unconscious absorbent mind'.
Seeking sensory input.
Regulation of movement.
Order, freedom, choice of activities (Edwards, 2002).
In relation to EYLF, Orson shows his ability to be an effective communicator (DEEWR, n.d.). For example, Orson is able to communicate to his Mum, even though he cannot yet verbalise his intentions. In this early stage of life, Orson can effectively use non-verbal communication which his Mum can comprehend.
A strong sense of identity is developed in this early stage of life in relation to social interactions. Interaction is exercised in conjunction with care, empathy and respect toward others. A personal feeling of safety, security and support are identified in this age group. (DEEWR, n.d.).
A strong sense of connection and contribution develop throughout this stage, enabling children to discover their own world and feel a part of a group. A better understanding of their rights and responsibility are formed (DEEWR, n.d.).
A strong sense of identity is formed. "Emerging autonomy, inter-dependence, resilience and sense of agency" are developed, enabling the child to meet physical hurdles in this stage and overcoming challenges they may face (DEEWR, n.d.).
Orson finger feeds himself,

He can drink from a cup with Mum's help,

Tries to use his spoon and fork, however is not yet successful with this task.

Outcome 5 – Children are effective communicators: Children interact verbally and non-verbally with others for a range of purposes.
• 5.1 - engage in enjoyable interactions using
verbal and non-verbal language.
Charlotte engages in enjoyable one-on-one interactions with her Dad. She is able to communicate by making sounds with her mouth, smiling and laughing.

During nappy changing time, speak to the child with correct language and use a normal tone of voice. Explain what you are doing by talking through the scenario. The child intuitively knows she is being respected a fully conscious human being (Montessori Child Development, The First Year, n.d). At the same time she is absorbing a wealth of language
During Charlotte’s nappy change time, her Dad was asking her about what top she would like to wear. He was talking her through the process. This is reflecting on the Montessori program.

Orson appears to use his remembering/recalling skills. As quoted by Orson.'I want a burger.'

Saying many words.

Comprehends & follows simple questions.

Names familiar basic concepts, such as up and down.

Asks repeating questions, such as why.

Understands action words: Such as jump.
Home speech Home, (n.d.)
According to the EYLF, educators are aware of
to seek and make meaning of the world,
knowing where and with whom you belong and
identifying self, building knowledge, comprehending, developing skills and rapports during childhood (DEEWR, 2009).
Dramatic play of a 'cooking class' would allow the child to engage in the EYLF criteria and give them an opportunity to imitate a scenario, become aware of themselves, their surroundings and develop rapports with their educator and peers.

Orson appears to have the following physical development:
Gross motor skills which involves coordination and control of large muscles. For example Orson has the ability to sit and stand.
Vision- During the film Orson is seen looking around and taking in his surroundings. Vision gives Orson the ability to see near and far and interpret what he has seen.
Hearing - Orson's ability to hear what gives him the ability to listen to and interpret sounds, which leads to speech, this is the ability to make sounds that form into words. Which also forms the way into language development (Brooks. A, 2008).

What resources might you use?
Emotional and social behaviour and understanding is your child’s ability to learn and interact with others, including skills for play and communicating with other people and children" (Brooks. A, 2008).
Props for dramatic play could include an apron, wooden spoon, bowl and ingredients. The child could be involved with mixing an egg and flour to make muffins. To set the table, the child could use plastic plates and cutlery.
Resources required for the Montessori approach would be the alphabet boards and sand paper letters. The sand paper letters could be hand made and the child could be involved with gluing the material together.

In the video, Supporting Early Literacy 0-5 (Siren Films, 2009), Orson is having lunch with his Mum. The scenario portrays the varying intricacies of a 16 month old boy interacting with his Mum and the world around him.
A strategy that would have Orson actively engaged within an early educational setting and encourage Orson's language and literacy skills and development would be dramatic or imaginary play. During dramatic play, a child is representing an understanding to their life/daily experiences in their own way (Barbour.A, 2007).

During using pretend/imaginative/dramatic play, the child will be building their thinking skills and developing social, emotional and language skills. Dramatic play is a very important tool for learning.

"Vygotsky considered dramatic play as socio-cultural, and language learning that is imperative in cognitive development (Theories of Language Development, n.d.). An example of dramatic play is a child pretending to go to sleep obeys the rules of bed time behavior.(Bodrova & Leong,2007). Or in this senario Orson and his father are pretending the shed roof is a castle.

Within an early learning setting, Sensory play would also benefit Orson.
Sensory play is an important way for children of this age to stimulate their sense of touch smell, taste, vision and hearing. Children who engage in sensory play through exploration, investigation and creativity are developing cognitively, linguistically, socially, emotionally and physically.
Setting the scene for sensory play with in an early learning setting, may include setting up a table with activities that would benefit a child of Orson's age.
A main contributor to the development and understanding of sensory play was Jean Piaget (McLeod, 2015).

Seb creates and discusses sea creatures. He shows interest in facts and finer details including sharks tails, teeth and the size of sharks, baby and Grey sharks.
Seb finds the interaction and conversation with his mum captivating. He talks, listens, asks questions and discusses things throughout the activity.
Seb carefully chooses his beads. The shapes he is creating appeals to him: “these are the shark teeth… these are all the tiny fish” (Siren Films, 2009).
Finding Nemo, a cartoon, is referred to. The sea creatures in this visual literacy interests Seb, especially Puranas and Sharks. He is curious about actors that were cast in the movie.
-Interacting with others.
-Taking it in turns to listen and speak, takes part in conversations.
-Speaking in sentences using many different words.
-Responding to visual literacy.
-Mimicking his mother.
-Able to recall from previous experiences.
-Asks many questions.
-Semantic knowledge is developing, (Hills, 2002).
-Answering simple questions.
-Tells stories.
-Talks constantly.
-Enjoys talking and experimenting with new words.

Sensory Play
Dramatic Play
In relation to language development and the Early Years Learning Framework (EYLF) Seb displays his ability to be an effective communicator: Outcome 5

Examples; 5.1 – Children interact verbally and non-verbally with others for a range of purposes- Seb questions to find out further information.
5.2 – Children engage with a range of texts and gain meaning from these texts. Evident he gained a lot of information and meaning from visual literacy.
5.3 – Children express ideas and make meaning using a range of media- recreates ideas through craft.
5.4 – Children use information and communication technologies to access information, investigate ideas and represent their thinking- Finding Nemo.
(DEEWR, 2009).

Seb demonstrates great concentration, staying focused on play, whilst verbally communicating. Discussion about visual media, which facilitates inter subjectivity, promoting cognitive development (Berk, 2013). Theorists support the argument that not only social communication promotes language development but also cognitive development (National Literacy Trust, 2015).

He smiles at his mother and makes eye contact.
Happily socialising with his Mother, through continuous conversation.
Shares, and cooperates in a social setting.
Likes to give and receive affection from parents,
Child feels safe, secure and supported: this nurtures social and emotional development (DEEWR, 2009).

Interactional theorists believe social interactions allow one to “make sense of the world, shaping ideas and beliefs and providing the opportunity to use language to express thoughts” (Kearns, 2010). Seb openly shares his thoughts and stories, “the sharks eating them puranas” (Siren Films, 2009). The scaffolding provided by his mother supports language development (Kearns, 2010).

Relating to the Montessori program, there would be a mobile hanging above the child’s head whilst getting their nappy changed. The mobile would have butterflies, birds or something natural that relates to the environment and is realistic. This allows the child to start recognising objects and eventually relate them to the real word.
During nappy change time, the educator will have daily conversations with Charlotte. This will provide opportunities and support for the children to engage in meaningful learning relationships (DEEWR, 2009).
During sensory time with Charlotte, there will be bubbles for Charlotte to touch and observe.

Accurate gross motor skills.
Exhibits hand preference.
Fine motor skills.

Physical development has been argued to be as important as language development during these preschool years. This strong connection is supported by most Early Childhood Educators (Machado, 2013).

Taking into consideration Seb’s interests, abilities, needs and development (Kearns, 20014), the emergent literacy strategies will be integrated with a content focus of Underwater World, 1 week duration. Final day- display work on wall and table. Also perform a song.

Strategies include:
*Social interaction: Small group paper plate craft station- create a sea creature to hang on the wall.
*Alphabet activities and emergent writing-Sensory puff paint play dough letters- cut out the letters to spell the sea creature, paint with puff paint.
*Rich Teacher Talk: Big Book reading time- engage with child by asking questions, allow for conversation, respond to child and extend the child’s comments so they are more grammatically correct and descriptive. (Roskos, Christie & Richgels, 2003).
* Phonological awareness activities and supporting emergent reading: Fact cards- a MKO present to encourage child with letter sounds and fact reading. Challenging the child to sound match words and to find rhyming words.
*Supporting emergent reading-Bubble facts- what have they learnt over the week, educator writes information on bubble shaped paper. Display next to sea creature on Wall.
*Dramatic play-Song and dance,“There’s a hole in the bottom of the sea”-
Learn song and dress up as your creature. Make up some movements.

Australian curriculum and Early Years Learning Framework

Learning Outcome 4: Confident and involved learners: eg. Taking information obtained from one activity (big book time) and adapting it appropriately to another (during conversation at an activity table, and/or the bubble shaped paper.), (DEEWR, 2009).
Charlotte is 3.5 months old. She is at home getting her nappy changed by her dad. He is also changing Charlotte’s clothes.

“Children’s learning is ongoing and each child will progress towards the outcomes in different and equally meaningful ways. Learning is not always predictable and linear. Educators plan with each child and the outcomes in mind”
(Early Years Learning Framework, p.19).

Dramatic play is such an important part of educating children, it allows the child to express themselves and gives the educator the ability to manage the child's different learning abilities.
Montessori curriculum

Alphabet Activities and Emergent Writing-Sensory Puff Paint Playdough Letters.
-Practical Life Exercises: enriches child’s appreciation and care for the environment, and those living within it, including oneself.
-Mathematics: use of concrete materials; water etc.
-Movement: fine motor skills.
-Sensorial Exercises: materials to develop “cognitive capability” (Graham Montessori, 2012).
-Language Skills: essential to one’s life.

Reggio approach.

Variety and vast selection of activities, a hundred languages. A hundred different ways of thinking, discovering, and of learning,(Whitehands, n.d). Allowing the child to be creative, in expressing thoughts and understanding, continuously learning in a play based environment.

Focus being on the Montessori curriculum:

A clean, ordered, beautiful and relaxed environment that is minimalised, so not to over stimulate. Everything at child’s height so they can gather the tools required. Child needs to participate in a full work cycle so they build on their concentration skills and get the most out of the activity. They start by setting it up, in this case making the playdough, and when ready, completes by packing away and cleaning up. (NAMC, 2015).

Montessori's main theory studies the importance of sensory development in childhood. From birth a child takes in their surroundings whilst developing their senses; this is done by sound, smell, textures. This then creates an impression that lies within the child's subconscious. Montessori often mentions, that the development of senses assist in cognitive development and plays a crucial role in language and literacy development. Montessori believes that sensory education helps children to gain the ability to create order in their busy minds, this will assist in making the mind stronger. (Child.W, 2014). Their are two parts to the development process for a young child. Orson is currently in the first phase (birth to 3), where he will draw and absorb from his environment and stores this information. This process is known as subconscious development. Orson will soon be entering the second phase (3 to 7), referred to as the conscience development.
(montessori for dementia, 2015)

(DEEWR. Swinburne, 2009)
“The environment must be rich in motives which lend interest to activity and invite the child to conduct his own experiences.” – M. Montessori, (Child. W,2014).
“The hands are the instruments of man’s intelligence.”
– Montessori (Child. W,2014).
In the video, Supporting Early Literacy 0-5 (Siren Films, 2009) Orson is outside playing with his father, on top of the castle/shed roof. This scenario demonstrates Orson's language and literacy development through dramatic/imaginative play, supported by his father.
Orson is communicating throughout the segment with his father.
This is helping to not only further his language development also encouraging Orson to build up confidence to communicate with others.
(Master Mind, n.d.).
(Rock, 2015)
Broomes.G (n.d.).
(Metodo Montessori, 2009)
Upon examination, it is apparent that early childhood language and literacy development can be supported and extended through various emergent literacy strategies. The Australian Curriculum, EYLF, Montessori, Reggio and Steiner/Waldorf models and approaches are key. It appears that these teaching techniques and methods do not exist in isolation; they can be traced back to different approaches, theoretical perspectives and assumptions.
As demonstrated, a child's age and developmental needs must be considered when implementing these strategies. As a teacher progresses throughout their career, they will build on these models and approaches with their own beliefs and philosophies; ultimately supporting early childhood language and literacy development.

To encourage dramatic play within an early education setting, it is important to set the stage throughout the room. This would include ensuring that the dramatic play area is inviting. This area should inspire creativity and imaginative play. This area should immediately invite the child to take on a role and begin pretending
(dramatic play, 2009).
This can be done with the support and guidance of an adult/educator.

Items such as babies to play parents, kitchen equipment to play out cooking or dinner time,boxes and sheets to create a home or a castle, any items that a child could use to play out their life or things they have witness within their daily worlds, through dramatic play
To encourage sensory play within the same setting you would require an area where the child can go, for example a table set up with sensory activities. Activities may include; Puffy paint, ice world, sorting colours with pompoms and cardboard rolls (Learning 4 kids, 2014).

(Cooper, 2014)
(Cooper, 2014)
All image(Cooper, 2014)
(Siren films,2009)
(Knos, 2014)
(Dramatic play, n.d.)
(My Special Child, 2015)
(Literacy, n.d)
(Sea Creatures Big Book, n.d)
(Learning about Fish, n.d)
(Montessori Playdough, n.d)
Learn, Play and Imagine, 2012
(Hands on Crafts for Kids, 2004)
(Mrs. Jumps Class, 2014)
(A hole in the bottom of the sea, n.d)
Sensory play
Physical Development
Social and Emotional
What other areas of development can you observe, and how do these relate to language development?
Montessori curriculum
Being tickled
Familiar voices
Orson can:
What particularly captures the child's interests?
Sandpaper Letters & Alphabet Boards
From the outset of the video and throughout, Orson is particularly interested in his and his Mum's food
Orson shows interest in the tap. He points to the tap and speaks gibberish, to communicate that he would like a drink. When his Mum asks him if he would like a drink, Orson nods in approval.
Spoon and Fork
Orson was being cheeky and pretended to drop his spoon. When his Mum tells him not to drop the spoon, he proceeds to push it down towards the ground with a grin on his face. He shows particular interest in dropping the spoon to rebel against his Mum, in a playful way. When Orson finally drops the spoon, he is drawn to searching for the spoon on the ground. Once the spoon falls, his Mum says 'oh oh' and Orson repeats the phrase.
Orson points to the light and uses his 'own' language as if describing the lights above the table.
(Heinz for Baby, n.d.)
(123RF, n.d)
(Traveling Tikes, n.d.)
(AliExpress, n.d)
(Pearse Trust, 2011)
(I-Cog, n.d.)
(Shaeffer. L, 2014)
(Corcoran. A, 2010)
(Quarella. T, 2015)
(University of Toronto, 2014).
(Siren Films, 2009).
(Lorina, 2010)
(Montessori, n.d)
(Dramatic Play in Early Childhood, n.d)
(TheLearningLanding.com, n.d)
(AliExpress, n.d)
(My Special Child, 2015).
(Broomes. G, n.d)
(Broomes, n.d).
(Weelicious, n.d)
Figure 5. Early Literacy: Playing. (Baltimore Country Public Library, 2015).
Rudolf Steiner. (American Institute for Learning and Human Development, 2012).
Loris Malaguzzi. (Reggio Children Identity, n.d).
(tts, n.d).
(New Jersey Family, 2014).
(Class Space, n.d).
(VisiHow, n.d).
(Siren Films, 2009)
Example: Sensory Education
(Langoly Language News, n.d.)
(Bilingual Montessori Program, n.d)
(Redland Healthcare The Independent Living Specialist, n.d)
(baby & toddler club, n.d.)
(AliExpress, n.d)
(Top online HD Picture, n.d)
(Baby Language, n.d)
(Montessori Infant-Toddler, 2010)
(Freepik, n.d.)
(Lord, 2012)
(Broomes, n.d).
(Child, 2014)
(Siren Films, 2009).
Orson and the castle (2.5 years)
(Glandore Community Kindergarten, n.d)
(Crathubs, n.d)
(Kindermusik, n.d)
(Sunny Coast Kids, n.d)
Piaget (1936) was the first psychologist to make a systematic study of cognitive development. (McLeod, 2015).

Orson is using Dramatic/Imaginative play during the segment, Orson and the castle, by pretending that the shed roof is a castle.
Dramatic Play encourages "abstract thinking, literacy, math, and social skill's, in a timely, natural manner" (Marie.E & Cecchini M.S. 2008).

At this stage Orson is thinking in symbols.
For example, a child makes a house out of a box. The child will also be repeating everything. Repetition is assisting Orson with confidence (Kinder Garden,n.d.).
Familiar items
Making sounds
What other areas of development can you observe, and how do these relate to language development?
Linking strategies to curriculum models and approaches?
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