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Easter Rising and beyond
Transcript of Easter Rising and beyond
In 1916, Great Britain was under severe pressure
by Germany. The leaders of the IRB saw this as
a prime opportunity stage a rebellions.
What we know already.....
1. What are two main political groups at this time?
The War of Independence
The British Government declared Dail Eireann illegal.
However, Sinn Fein and its Irish Republican Army (IRA) promised to defend the Republic at all costs.
The Easter Rising
The Results of the Rising
1. Death and Destruction:
About 500 people were killed. Over 300 of these
were civilians. There was also property damage of
over £3 million .
The Rise of Sinn Fein
was founded by
Arthur Griffith in 1908
. Before the Rising, Sinn Fein was not as popular as the Home Rule Party. However, after the rebellion the British began to blame Sinn Fein on the rising, not the IRB.
"England's difficulty is Ireland's opportunity"
The Easter Rising and beyond
Ans: Nationalist and Unionist
2. Name the 3 types of Nationalist groups.
Ans: Home Rule, I.R.B & Sinn Fein.
3. When was the Home Rule bill passed?
4. 200,000 Unionists sign a petition. What is this petition called?
Ans: Solemn League and Covenant.
5. The Ulster Volunteers smuggled 24,000 guns into Ulster. What was this event called?
Ans: Larne Gun Running.
6. The Irish Volunteers do the same in Dublin as they smuggle 1,500 guns. What was this called?
Ans: Howth Gun Running.
7. As Home Rule fast approaches, World War
I begins. What does this means for Home Rule?
Ans: Home was postponed until after the war.
The IRB established a "Military Council" to plan the rebellion. The key members of this council were
Padraig Pearse, Sean MacDiarmada and Thomas Clarke
The IRB Military Council took 3 actions in at the beginning of their planning.
1. They recruited James Connolly and
his Irish Citizen Army. This group had
about 300 members.
2. They sent
Sir Roger Casement
to Germany for get arms. He would
ship them using a boat named
3. They needed the Irish Volunteers.
l was against the rebellion so
the rebels tricked him by showing him a false
The Rising faced 2 majors difficulties before the
1. The Aud was seized by the British off
the coast of County Kerry. The arms and Casement were be lost.
2. On the
Eoin MacNeill discovered
that he had been tricked and all Volunteer support
Eoin MacNeill had planned a march for the Irish Volunteers for 23rd April Easter Sunday.
When MacNeill had learned that he had been
tricked by the IRB military council, he cancelled the march.
The leaders of the IRB decided that
they would still go ahead with the rising on Easter Monday. It had no
hope of military success.
On Easter Monday morning 2
4th April 1916,
1,500 Volunteers and members of Irish Citizen Army launched the 1916 Rising.
Pearse and Connolly took over the General Post Office (GPO) on O'Connell Street. Outside the GPO, Pearse read the
"Proclamation of the Irish Republic"
The British Government was taken by surprise as they expected the Rising to be cancelled.
The British ordered reinforcements
and England. The
British army closed off Dublin city
and a gunboat,
, was sent up
On Saturday 29th April, Pearse surrender unconditionally to prevent further loss of life.
2. Reaction of the People:
Dublin people were angry with the
rebels because of the destruction of their
city. Many of nationalists supported the Home Rule
3. Martial Law:
The British army was no in charge of the country.
2,000 people were tried without trial.
90 people were sentenced to death.
All seven signatories of the Proclamation
were executed in Kilmainham jail. This was
a massive mistake by the British.
Sinn Fein was now the most popular party in Ireland and
Eamon De Valera
, the only surviving leader of the Rising, became its leader.
The 1918 Election:
Sinn Fein led by De Valera and a young
rebel from Cork, Michael Collins, promised
voters that they would give Ireland a Republic.
At this time, the "Great War" looked as if it might never end. The word "Conscription" was feared by many Nationalists.
The election was a massive success. Sinn Fein won 76 seats, the Home Rule party 6 and the Unionists 26.
Sinn Fein would now deliver on their promise and create a Republic.
Sinn Fein immediately set up the Dail, the parliament of the Irish Republic, in the
The Irish War of Independence started in
, when a group of Tipperary IRA men, led by
, attacked an RIC barracks in
The IRA had learned from the Rising that they could not beat the British Army directly. They knew they needed to use "guerrilla warfare" if they were to have any chance of prolonging the war.
The IRA organized itself into "
These were groups of 40 t0 80 men, who would live in the countryside and ambush British soldiers.
During the War of Independence, De Valera spent most of his time in prison or in America.
The IRA was officially led by the Minister of Defence, Cathal Brugha. However, the real leader from 1919 to 1921 was Michael Collins.
Born in Cork in 1890.
Emigrated to London in 1909 where he joined the IRB.
Sent to prison in Wales in 1916 after the rising.
Elected as an MP for South Cork in 1918. Refused to take seat in Westminster.
Joined Dail Eireann and became Minister for Finance.
Set up "The Squad" to assassinate British spies.
The IRA's main aim was to destroy the RIC. Thus destroying British law in Ireland. The IRA was extremely successful at this and by 1920 the RIC only existed in major towns.
The British response was to send former World War 1
soldiers to Ireland. This group was called the "Black and Tan" due to their uniform
The War of Independence 1919-1921
As we have seen previously, the IRA's
guerillas warfare was working in many parts of
Ireland. The RIC was struggling to contain the IRA
and even with the help of the "Black and Tans", the
IRA was winning the war.
In retaliation to the attacks on the RIC, the Black and Tans began to carry out reprisals against local people and their homes. These actions meant that the IRA was receiving more support from the public.
There were 4 major incidents of the War of Independence.
1. In 1919, Tomas MacCurtain was murdered by the RIC in front of his entire family. MacCurtain was the Lord Major of Cork and his murder was a retaliation to the death of policeman.
2. Terrence MacSwiney became the Lord Major
of Cork after MacCurtain. He was arrested and sent
to Brixton prison, near London. When in prison,
he went on hunger strike and died on the 20th October 1920.
"Victory is not won by Those Who can inflict the most, but by Those Who can Endure the most"
3. On the
21st of November 1920
, Micheal Collins ordered
to a kill a group of British agents called the
. 13 of these were killed in Dublin that morning.
Later that day, the Black and Tans shot into
Croke Park during a football match. 12 people were
killed, including one of the players, Michael Hogan
. The IRA attacked the Custom House in May 1921. The Custom House was severely damaged but this led to the capture or death of up to 80 Dublin IRA members.
In the Summer of 1921, both sides wanted peace.
Eamon De Valera
both agreed to
a ceasefire in
for a number of reasons.
The IRA were short of men and ammunition.
The people wanted peace.
The war was costing both sides a lot of money.
The British government was being criticised at home and abroad.