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New Kingdom

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by

Lauren Wake

on 13 September 2012

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Transcript of New Kingdom

Government New Kingdom Capital Accomplishments Interesting Facts Monarchs/Rulers Religion Hatshepsut was one of the first women to become a pharaoh. She built a great temple at Deir el-Bahri, near Thebes. She was succeeded by her nephew Thutmose, who led 17 military campaigns into Syria and Palsestine and even reached as far east as the Euphrates River. Pharaoh Amenhotep IV, who later changed his name to Akhenaten, introduced the worship of Aten, the god of sun disk, as the sole god. His actions in destroying the old gods meant to many Egyptians the destruction of Egypt itself. Akhenaten was late killed by Tutankhamen, who restored the old gods. Rames II reigned from c. 1279 B.C. to 1213 B.C. He fought the Hittites to reign control over land in Africa and western Asia. He claimed victory for Egypt, but signed a treaty that divided the land between the Hittites and the Egyptians. Rames II married an Hittite princess as part of the agreement. He established a new capital and built many grand temples. Cleopatra VII tired to reestablish Egypt's independence. Her involvement with Rome led to her defet and suicide, and Egypt became a province in Rome's empire. Royalty was buried in the Valley of the Kings.
During the 20th dynasty officials began tomb robbing.
Priests became very powerful.
When priests were powerful the government broke down.
King Akhenaten established a new religious worshiping the sun god Aten.
Names of the dynasties during the New Kingdom were 18th-20th Egyptian Dynasties.
Lasted about 500 years.
The magnificent temples at Luxor were constructed, by Amenophis and Amenhotep III with additions by Ramses II.
The cycle of life after death was guided by the Book of the Dead. The capital was in Thebes, but later got moved backed to Memphis. The Hyksos are a group of people from western Asia. They used horse-drawn chariots to overwhelm the Egyptian soldiers, who fought from donkey carts. The Hyksos ruled much of Egypt for almost 100 years. They taught the Egyptians to use bronze in the making of their farming tools and their weapons. They also learned and mastered military skills. Eventually, a new dynasty of pharaohs drove out the Hyksos and reunited the Egyptians. Polytheistic was the religion, which means they believed in many gods. They believed in Ra, the sun god; Hathor, the god of music; Geb, the god of earth; and seth, the god of the Desert. They also believed in a significant life occurring after death, referred to as "A beautiful other world". there were large temples built for citizens to worship gods. Kings were considered "living gods", worshiped kings as they would worship any other gods. The religion controlled education, the structure of society, technological advances, and the system of government. The building of the tombs of the Valley of Kings.
The Egyptians expanded their land into Palestine, Syria, and Libya in the 18th century.
The egyptian writing system was the hieroglyphics, a pictographic language used primarily for religious purposes.
The discovery of the Rosetta Stone in 1799.
The tomb paintings were very common.
Learning how to use horse-drawn chariots.
The Egyptians drove out the Hyksos using the weapons the Hyksos taught them to use. In late 1640–1550 B.C., the Theban rulers began to drive the Hyksos from the Delta. This was finally accomplished by Ahmose I, who reunited Egypt. Ahmose's success in Dynasty 18 conducted military campaigns that extended Egypt's influence in the Near East and established Egyptian control of Nubia. As a result, the New Kingdom pharaohs commanded unimaginable wealth, much of which they lavished on their gods. Although the rulers of Dynasty 19 established an administrative capital near their home in the Delta, Thebes remained a cultural and religious center. The pharaohs built temples here and were buried in huge rock-cut tombs decorated with finely executed paintings or painted religious texts concerned with the afterlife. A new town was created in western Thebes for the artists who created these tombs. At this site (Deir el-Medina), they left a wealth of information about life in an ancient Egyptian community of artisans and craftsmen.
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