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SS6033 - Inclusion? - By Jessie Bustillos

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Jessie B

on 13 October 2014

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Transcript of SS6033 - Inclusion? - By Jessie Bustillos

SS6033 - Inclusion? - by Jessie Bustillos
Last week
-We introduced ideas around justice and social justice and how it impinges on inclusion.
Understanding Inclusion as Part of a Changing Society
'What was once a relatively homogeneous and stable population has been transformed.
Every aspect of society that affects the treatment of disabilities and learning
difficulties has changed radically and continues to evolve – the cultural, ethnic
and religious profile, patterns of family organization, economic and occupational
structures, the relative status of men and women, and the perception of human
rights and social responsibilities.'
(Frederickson and Cline, 2002: 4)

It is in this wider context that the notion of inclusion emerged.
Evaluating Inclusion:beginnings
'Views of integration and then inclusion were linked to a notion of comprehensive community education from nursery, through the years of compulsory education to higher or lifelong education. Inclusion was connected to a principle of equality of value of all students and staff within education. Inclusion was seen to involve schools in recognising and valuing the diversity of their students and thus arranging for them to learn together in mixed collaborating groups. The process of inclusion involved schools in extending this diversity to include all students within their communities and to counter all forms of selection and exclusion.' (Ainscow, 2006: 13)
Inclusion as a concern with disabled students and others categorised as ‘having special educational needs’.
The government’s programme for action on special educational needs referred to inclusion as ‘the keystone’ of its educational policy (DfEE, 1998). Yet this was a reference not to general educational policy but to policy concerned with children categorised as ‘having special
educational needs’:
'We want to see more pupils with SEN included within mainstream primary and secondary schools. We support the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) Salamanca World Statement on Special Needs Education 1994. This calls on governments to adopt the principle of inclusive education, enrolling all children in regular schools, unless there are compelling reasons for doing otherwise. That implies the progressive extension of the capacity of mainstream schools to provide for children with a wide range of needs.'
Discussion points
In your groups discuss the changing nature of the term inclusion, taking into account its emergence from social justice.

What could be the disadvantages of a widespread ‘special educational needs’ view of inclusion?

Make a list of your views on these two questions:

How do you understand inclusion now? And how do you understand inclusion and education?
How do your answers differ?

Next week
-How the Warnock report underpinned the creation of the 1981 education act.
-Evaluate key concepts in charting inclusive education
This week we will:
Be introduced to the concept of inclusion

Begin to understand inclusion without centering on simplistic concepts

Begin to attempt to make sense of how inclusion has changed its meaning in our social systems

Discuss the changing views on inclusion and how we understand it now
Frederickson, N. and Cline, T. (2002) Special Educational Needs: Inclusion and Diversity. Buckingham: Open University Press.
However, there is a tension at the heart of this discussion. It is a tension between the attempts to put values and principles into action, and the complexities of schools and education systems.
Ainscow, M., Booth, T. and Dyson, A. (2006) Improving Schools Developing Inclusion. London: Routledge.
Therefore it is important to recognise the myriad ways in which 'inclusion' functions socially.
'inclusion has been defined as an approach to education embodying particular values. It was therefore concerned with all learners and with overcoming barriers to all forms of marginalisation, exclusion and underachievement. The great majority of previous studies take a much narrower view of inclusion as concerned with children with impairments, or otherwise categorised as ‘having special educational needs’. (Ainscow et al, 2006: 5)
Ainscow, M., Booth, T. and Dyson, A. (2006) Improving Schools Developing Inclusion. London: Routledge.
With this in mind, we can see how in education inclusion had a wider meaning, which was more aligned with meritocratic, equality-driven values but it has been arguably reduced to the realm of inclusive practice and special education.
1. Inclusion is understood as being concern with disabled students and others categorised as ‘having special educational needs’.
2. Inclusion as a response to disciplinary exclusion.
3. Inclusion has ceased to be seen as in relation to all groups perceived as being vulnerable to exclusion.
4. Inclusion has also ceased to be developing the school for all.
6. Inclusion originally was a principled approach to education and society.
(Ainscow et al, 2006: 15)
Ainscow, M., Booth, T. and Dyson, A. (2006) Improving Schools Debeloping Inclusion. London: Routledge.
Inclusion as social justice
(DfEE, 1997, p. 44 cited in Ainscow et al, 2006: 15)
SEN? Warnock Report
Some recommendations:

-the term 'children with learning difficulties' should be used to describe children who are currently categorised as educationally sub-normal and those with educational difficulties;
-local education authorities should be empowered to require the multi-professional assessment of children of any age;
-every further education establishment should designate a member of staff as responsible for the welfare of students with special needs;
-every local authority should have an education officer with responsibility for special needs provision;
-more educational psychologists are needed;
-all courses of initial teacher training should include a special education element;
-there should be a range of recognised qualifications in special education;
Discussion point: What dimensions of SEN education needed to be changed according to these recommendations?

We'll be discussing the findings of an Ofsted report and asking some questions regarding inclusion and SEN and the implementation of inclusive practices in schools.
(2004) Special educational needs and disability: towards
inclusive schools.
Socially, inclusion means several things.
Inclusion could be seen as an extension of ideas of social justice, which last week we explored through Rawls theory. We argued that social justice was linked to the distribution of rights and duties in societies to promote equality and to reduce the burdens of social cooperation.

But also because inclusion is a value deriving from social justice it underpins all social institutions and it is normally regarded as a good and necessary approach.

How is it primarily received in education?
Inclusion in schools: SEN
Full transcript