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Oppositional Defiant Disorder

Presentation by Laura Brewerton, Chol Deng, Eric Evanson

Eric Evanson

on 11 October 2012

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Transcript of Oppositional Defiant Disorder

Defiant Child or an Expressive Individual? Oppositional Defiant Disorder What living with ODD is like There is no clear cut cause but it is believed that a combination of biological, psychological and social factors play a role. What Causes ODD Children with ODD typically show a pattern on ongoing negativity, hostility, and defiance that occurs for over a period of 6 months and is excessive compared to the norm of the child's age. Symptoms of ODD How Is ODD Diagnosed? Introduction The following presentation will discuss:
What Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) is according to the DSM IV.
What is the cause of ODD, its symptoms and how is it diagnosed?
The strength based approach to helping individuals who have this diagnosis. Possible other interventions will be mentioned.
An example of an interview with an individual with ODD using a solution based counseling. DSM IV Definition of
Oppositional Defiant Disorder A. A pattern of negativistic, hostile, and defiant behavior lasting at least 6 months, during which four (or more) of the following are present:
(1) often loses temper
(2) often argues with adults
(3) often actively defies or refuses to comply with adults' requests or rules
(4) often deliberately annoys people
(5) often blames others for his or her mistakes or misbehavior
(6) is often touchy or easily annoyed by others
(7) is often angry and resentful
(8) is often spiteful or vindictive
Note: Consider a criterion met only if the behavior occurs more frequently than is typically observed in individuals of comparable age and developmental level.
B. The disturbance in behavior causes clinically significant impairment in social, academic, or occupational functioning.
C. The behaviors do not occur exclusively during the course of a Psychotic or Mood Disorder.
D. Criteria are not met for Conduct Disorder, and, if the individual is age 18 years or older, criteria are not met for Antisocial Personality Disorder. Doesn't this sound like a majority of Teenagers?? Biological Factors:
A parent with a history of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, ODD, or Conduct Disorder
A parent with a mood disorder
A parent with drinking or substance abuse
Impairment in the brain responsible for judgement, reasoning and impulse control
Chemical imbalance of the brain, exposure to toxins, poor nutrition
Mother who smoked or drinked alcohol during pregnancy causing effects of FASD/FAS Psychological Factors:
Poor relationship with one or both parents
Parent who is neglecting or absent in the child's life
Has difficulty forming social relationships Social Factors:
Chaotic environment
Lack of supervision
Uninvolved parents
Inconsistent discipline
Family instability How Common is ODD? It has been determined through evidence that about 1 in 16 percent of children and teenagers have some form of ODD. For younger preschool children their is very little information on that.
Individuals with ODD usually have the symptoms appear in late preschool to early school age.
ODD is more common in boys than girls.
Boys typically show their aggressiveness through physical means while Girls show their aggressiveness through words and indirect means. Behavioral symptoms included with ODD are the following:
Temper Tantrums
Excessive arguing with adults
Refusing request and complying with rules
Questions rules and authority figures
Easily annoys others or is easily annoyed
Blames others for his/her mistakes
Frequent outbursts of anger and resentment
Spiteful attitude and seeks revenge This Fun little video show possible ways a child can behave when they show symptoms of ODD Though there is not one single test to determine whether a child has ODD or not, but you can make a determination by assessing a child's symptoms and behaviors in a clinical manner.
Gathering information about the child through previous medical records, school records, daycare records, or from the parents themselves to get a sense of where the child is at.
One extremely important thing a professional can do is build a relationship with the child to get an understanding about how this is a problem for them or see if the child knows it is a problem for others.
Knowing these factors can help a professional to make a judgement where or not these ODD symptoms are temporary or it might lead to more severe conditions such as Conduct Disorder. Does ODD occur with other mental health conditions? Those diagnosed with ODD also display other mental health and learning conditions. This conditions are co-existing conditions which are the following:
Anxiety disorders
Mood disorders, such as depression and bi-polar disorder
Learning disorders
Language Disorders
To note ODD typically appears in individuals whom already have ADHD. Usually a individual will be diagnosed with ADHD long before they become diagnosed with ODD. Can ODD be Prevented There is research that suggests that early intervention for an individual whom is showing ODD symptoms can help to prevent the onset of ODD.
Programs for preschool children such as the Head Start program has helped young children do well in school and avoid delinquency later in their childhood.
Home visits to children with a high risk of developing ODD has shown to be helpful as well.
For teenagers talk therapy, skills training and other school based programs has been shown to reduce the amount of disruptive behavior caused by ODD.
Finally Parent-Management programs have been proven highly effective in preventing ODD in children of all ages. How is ODD Treated? There is no one size fits all approach to treating those whom have ODD. Most treatments are tailored to the needs and behaviors of the individual. Getting as much assessing information as possible before treatment is key for which treatment is chosen to be successful. The following are 4 treatments that have been proven to be effective. A combination of the 4 is likely to occur for an individual:

Parent-Management Training Programs and Family Therapy
Cognitive Problem Solving Skills Training
Social Skills Programs and School Based Programs
Medication Parent Management & Family Therapy In these programs parents and other family members are taught techniques in how to manage a child's behavior. These techniques include positive reinforcement and more positive ways of disciplining effectively. Cognitive Problem Solving Skills Training Helps to reduce inappropriate behaviors by showing the child positive ways of reacting to stressful situations. Children most often react negatively to events since they are not taught the proper positive ways. Problem Solving exercises teaches these children to see these situations and respond effectively. Social Skills and School Based Programs These programs help to teach children and teens how to relate positively to their peers and how to improve their schoolwork. These occur more successfully when done in the natural environment such as at the school or at a group program. Medication This may be necessary but we feel this should be the last resort to treat the symptoms of ODD. These symptoms of ODD are usually treated along with other conditions such as ADHD, anxiety, and mood disorders. Thus medications such as Prozac and others are used. Solution Building Counseling Example This video is an example of how to apply the solution building model to individuals that have signs of ODD.
To View this video in DropBox under the CYC 280 Videos choose the file "ODD Solution Based Interview Conclusion How Long Does Treatment Last? Most treatments for both children and teens last multiple months or longer. For those individuals whom have severe ODD and do not respond well to therapy, treatment can last for several years. Can ODD Improve Overtime? When treated ODD can improve overtime and the symptoms will become less severe. About 67% of those treated become symptom free after three years, while 30% who are diagnosed with ODD go on to develop Conduct Disorder. In the past it was thought that ODD dissipates as you reach adulthood, but that is not the case. While some symptoms of ODD disappear overtime and children outgrow them, some move on to further more serious disorders such as Conduct Disorder. Early diagnosis and treatment greatly helps those to manage their behaviors and cope with stressful situations. More than likely in this field you will work with individuals whom will have this diagnosis. Annotated Bibliography Oppositional Defiant Disorder. (2009). ODD a guide for families by the american academy of child and adolescent psychiatry. Retrieved from the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry: http://www.aacap.org/galleries/eAACAP.ResourcesCenters/ODD_Guide.pdf This handout guide is given to families to show them an overall overview of ODD. What it is, what are the symptoms, how it is treated etc. The majority of the Prezi information came from this document since it compiled all the other things we found together into one convenient document. Hazell, P. (2010). Review of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder comorbid with oppositional defiant disorder. Australian Psychiatry, 18(6), 556-559, 4. This article discusses the link between ADD/ADHD and how it co-exists with ODD. The author asks that we should strive to have ODD become its own completely separate disorder from ADHD since when one you usually have both. Ancos, E.T., Ascaso, L.E. (2011). Sex differences in oppositional defiant disorder. Psicothema; nov 2011, Vol. 23 Issue 4, p666-671, 6p This article describes how both boys and girls react or display behaviors differently when they have ODD. Annotated Bibliography Continued David Rovics- oppositional defiance disorder (2010). [Online Video]. Retrieved from www.youtube.com Pharmaceutical commercial spoof for ziapan (2011). [Online Video]. Retrieved from www.youtube.com This video is a music video that David Rovics wrote and sung about what it is like to be diagnosed with ODD. Spoof video about how a kid reacts to the drug Ziapan which is given to children to control their behaviors much like Ritalin. Walker & texas ranger (ricky bobby) (2007). [Online Video]. Retrieved from www.youtube.com This video from the film Talladega Nights: The Ballad of Ricky Bobby takes the scenes which the character Walker & Texas Ranger are in. This video is used to show how a child with ODD can be like among other things. Presenters Emails Laura Brewerton: laura.brewerton@lethbridgecollege.ca Chol Deng: chol.deng@lethbridgecollege.ca Eric Evanson: eric.evanson@lethbridgecollege.ca Annotated Bibliography Continued
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text rev.). Washington, DC: Author. This is where the DSM definition of Oppositional Defiant Disorder came from.
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