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Brandon French

on 20 March 2013

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Transcript of Substations

Elements of a Substation Electrical Substations Types of Substations Switching Function Design of Substations Automation & Railways 1. Primary power lines
2. Ground wire
3. Overhead lines
4. Transformer for measurement of electric voltage
5. Disconnect switch
6. Circuit breaker
7. Current transformer
8. Lightning arrester
9. Main transformer
10. Control building
11. Security fence
12. Secondary power lines Karlsruhe traction current converter plant Cutaway view of liquid-immersed construction transformer. The conservator (reservoir) at top provides liquid-to-atmosphere isolation as coolant level and temperature changes. The walls and fins provide required heat dissipation balance. Transformers B: Secondary power lines' side A: Primary power lines' side Voltage Regulator Re-closer
(Circuit Breaker) The switching station, switches the current to another line so that maintenance can be done on a line without having to shut down the entire system to do work. The automation of substations became a necessity as time passed due to the requirements of separate grids thus new lines had to be installed to control the elements in the grid and to remove the human error.

Railways sometimes require substations to change the current for use with their electrified rails.

A railway substation can also operate as a converter substation or transmission substation based on the requirements of the rail system. *Protection *Switching *Control Equipment Converter Substation Switching Substation Transmission Substation A distribution substation changes voltage from the main line to lower voltages for consumer use. These stations can also be used to isolate faults in the system. The converter substation changes AC current to DC current or from DC current to AC current these types of stations are rare today. The transmission substation connects two or more stations. This type of substation is responsible for the transmission of equal voltage. This type of substation also has breakers for maintenance and emergency cut off. The stitching substation operates without transformers and at a single voltage. The substation simply switches the current from one grid to another in the event of failure. When designing substations one must consider several factors. The first being, the type of substation to be constructed, what purpose the substation is completing and whether or not the substation requires control circuitry.

The substation must be able to expand if necessary.

The cost of materials is also an important factor to consider.

Security may be necessary due to vandalism which could render the service inoperable.

When a metal fence is used to isolate the facility it must be grounded with no nearby or underground metal parts, in order to prevent injury. Distribution Substation Goes to Goes to "From the plant to your front door"
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