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A world filled with adaptations

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Gabriela Ocampo

on 29 October 2014

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Transcript of A world filled with adaptations

A World Filled With Adaptations
What is an adaptation?
Helps organisms to survive in their ecological niche or habitat
Living things who do not adapt to their situation/ environment usually do not live to reproduce and pass on their genes
There are 3 different types of adaptations. They are morphological, physiological, and behavioural adaptations.
Morphological Adaptations
This type of adaptations is when a structural feature aids a living thing to fit their environment. Usually happens when a mutation occurs. This mutation increases the individuals overall fitness to survive, therefore being able to reproduce and pass down to its offsprings
Physiological Adaptation
A metabolic of physiologic adjustment within the cells or tissues of an organism in response to an environmental stimulus resulting in improving the ability of that organism to cope with its changing environment.
Behavioural Adaptations
This is something an organism does - how it acts- usually in response to some type of external stimulus. Behavioural adaptations can be learned or instinctive.
Camels
Camels have adapted different adjustments within tissues and organs to restrict water loss as soon as intake is reduced. These adaptations (listed below) are needed to survive and thrive in their hot, dry environment where there is limited quantities of water.
They can oxidize the fat stored in their humps to produce water
the stomach has sacs that contain large amounts of secreted fluid called "water sacs"
The kidneys make the urine very concentrated (little amount of fluid is loss)
Urea and feces fluid is absorbed by the intestine/colon and redirected back to the stomach for conservation
Possums
You have probably heard the phrase "playing possum" which basically means act dead, but to possums it is an important behavioural adaptation needed to survive.
What the possum does when it senses danger is that it will flop down on its side and lay their motionless with its eyes turning glassy and potentially drooling. This is executed so the predator will lose interest in the already "dead" creature (most like to catch their prey alive) and walk away.
How did this adaptation arise in the population?


Variation
Back when this adaptation was not prevalent throughout the entire population, there must have been other techniques being performed when feeling endangered. To hypothesize, these other techniques could have possibly been running away or attacking the predator.
Different survival techniques
Struggle
Avoid death from a potential predator
The possum population struggled to avoid death. Some were more fit than others and were capable of escaping the predator more effectively.
Environmental Selection
" Playing Possums"
The environment selected this behavioural adaptation to escape death. Some of the other traits such as running were not effective because possums are not fast enough to out run their predators. possums who practiced this technique would survive and ...
Reproduction and Inheritance
...mate with other possums who survived due to "playing dead". These possums would be able to pass on their genes to their off springs, as well as this adaptation

Survivor pass the adaptation on to their off springs
(Hypothetically)This is how the "playing dead" behavioural adaptation arose in the possum population
Amoeba
This single-celled organisms has a structural feature known as pseudopods (false feet). They are extensions which aids this Protist to move by continually changing its shape. Also, the pseudopods are used to capture Amoeba's prey. What these extensions do is that they surround the prey, enclosing it in a bubble-like chamber called a food vacuole, and bring it close to their body to digest.
You can see the action of the Amoeba's pseudopods surrounding the prey (Paramecia) in this video
How did this adaptation arise in the population?

Variation
Struggle
Environmental Selection
Reproduction and Inheritance

Different methods to trap prey
Hypothetically, there were different adaptations to trap food. Some could wait for their prey to come closer before excreting enzymes to break it down or (as the present day amoeba does) it could latch its extension around its prey.
To capture food
The population is struggling to capture food. The amoeba with the most fit adaptation will be able to capture food the easiest and more effective.
The environment selected the morphological adaptation where pseudopods were used to capture their prey.
Pseudopods
Survivor will divide producing other amoebas with this adaptation
Amoebas with this adaption are likely to survive (due to being able to capture food and get nutrients). These amoebas will divide (asexual), therefore increasing the prevalence of the pseudopods adaptation.
(Hypothetically)This is how the pseudopod "false feet" morphological adaptation arose in the Amoeba population
Radiolaria
This single-celled species is known for its beautiful outer structure. The Radiolaria does not have cilia or flagellum to move but instead relies on its environment. They use the ocean currents to move. They have bubble like compartments filled with gas in their central capsules. This increases the buoyancy of the organism allowing it to be carried easier by the waves.
References
"Morphological Adaptation Definition." Morphological Adaptation. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Oct. 2014. <http://www.mondofacto.com/facts/dictionary?morphological+adaptation>.
Gittleman, John L. "Adaptation (biology and Physiology)." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica, n.d. Web. 27 Oct. 2014. <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/5263/adaptation>.
BBC News. BBC, n.d. Web. 28 Oct. 2014. <http://www.bbc.co.uk/nature/adaptations>.
Fayad, R.H. "Adaptation of the Camel to the Desert Enviornement." Adaptation. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Oct. 2014. <http%3A%2F%2Fkenanaonline.com%2Fusers%2FAkrumHamdy%2Fposts%2F78772>.
"Radiolaria: More on Morphology." Morphology of the Radiolaria. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Oct. 2014. <http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/protista/radiolaria/radmm.html>.
"Blogging about Animal Behaviour (2010)." » "Playing Possum" N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Oct. 2014. <http://blog.nus.edu.sg/lsm1303student2010/2010/04/04/%E2%80%9Cplaying-possum%E2%80%9D/>.
"Science Clarified." Amoeba. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Oct. 2014. <http://www.scienceclarified.com/Al-As/Amoeba.html>.
"Amoeba Eats Two Paramecia (Amoeba's Lunch)." YouTube. YouTube, n.d. Web. 28 Oct. 2014. <
"Amoeba." Amoeba. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Oct. 2014. <http://www.fcps.edu/islandcreekes/ecology/amoeba.htm>.
These living things are surviving in their environment due to the miracles of adaptations
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