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Classroom Management

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Kaleen DeFilippis

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Transcript of Classroom Management

Classroom Management
Classroom Management:
Theories

Kaleen DeFilippis, Johanna Lohse, Kristin Rock, Kristi Underhill, Kaitlyn Yakish

SPE/546

July 6, 2015

Anthony Osborn
What is PBIS?
As described on the PBIS FAQs page, "PBIS is a framework or approach for assisting school personnel in adopting and organizing evidence-based behavioral interventions into an integrated continuum that enhances academic and social behavior outcomes for all students" (Positive Behavioral Interventions & Supports PBIS). This approach to behavior is based upon creating congruent and consistent behaviors across all settings in a way that promotes socially appropriate behaviors and supports students’ achievement of academic and social success. PBIS promotes the application of socially appropriate behaviors through teaching, modeling, practicing, intervening, and positively rewarding students for appropriate behaviors. Implementing this behavioral approach has the ability to ultimately decrease behavioral issues and increase classroom instructional time.
PBIS Behavioral Levels
There are three behavioral levels: Minor 1, Minor 2, and Major.
Minor 1: Unwanted and disrespectful behavior toward a teacher or student within any area of the school.
Minor 2: Physical, verbal, or defiant behavior exhibited toward a teacher or student within any area of the school.
Major: Any behavior that is more severe in nature and that is more time consuming to handle.
How does PBIS work?
All students follow the same set of rules and expectations throughout all areas in the building.
These rules and expectations are displayed as a matrix, which is posted in every hallway and classroom.
When students follow the rules and expectations, they are recognized.
When students do not follow the rules, there are planned consequences to help them get back on track.

(Positive Behavioral Interventions & Supports PBIS)
Environmental modifications that would contribute to student learning:
PBIS is a proactive classroom management that identifies times and areas in the school that students may have a higher tendency to display undesirable behaviors. Therefore, it outlines expectations in a visual way and supports expectations by verbal repetition. In addition, some teachers may create movements to reinforce expectations and support kinetic learners.

Explanation of the difference between classroom management and discipline management in respect to learning when individuals with exceptional learning needs are in the classroom
The word discipline is about training behaviors. Discipline works to support students and trains them in how to act in the classroom space and relate to other students.
Choice Theory - William Glasser
The Choice Theory states that:

All we do is behave
Almost all behavior is chosen
That we are driven by our genes to satisfy five basic needs: survival, love and belonging, power, freedom and fun.
In practice, the most important need is love and belonging. This is because closeness and connectedness with the people we care about is a requisite for satisfying all of the needs.
Glasser's Choice Theory was published in 1998 in the book, "Choice Theory: A New Psychology of Personal Freedom."
Glasser's Choice Theory: Relationships and Habits
Seven Caring Habits:
1. Supporting
2. Encouraging
3. Listening
4. Accepting
5. Trusting
6. Respecting
7. Negotiating Differences
Seven Deadly Habits:
1. Criticizing
2. Blaming
3. Complaining
4. Nagging
5. Threatening
6. Punishing
7. Bribing, rewarding to control
The theory discusses the behaviors that can result in improved and positive relationships (caring habits) and the behaviors that negatively impact relationships (deadly habits).
The Ten Axioms of the Choice Theory
1. The only person whose behavior we can control is our own.
2. All we can give another person is information.
3. All long-lasting psychological problems are relationship problems.
4. The problem relationship is always part of our present life.
5. What happened in the past has everything to do with what we are today, but we can only satisfy our basic needs right now and plan to continue satisfying them in the future.
6. We can only satisfy our needs by satisfying the pictures in our Quality World.
7. All we do is behave.
8. All behavior is Total Behavior and is made up of four components: acting, thinking, feeling, and physiology.
9. All Total Behavior is chosen, but we only have direct control over the acting and thinking components. We can only control our feeling and physiology indirectly through how we choose to act and think.
10. All Total Behavior is designated by verbs and named by the part that is the most recognizable.
The main goal of the Choice Theory is to make mentally healthy choices.
Using Choice Theory in the Classroom
Talk with student about the situation that happened in the classroom
Ask student to identify what they were hoping to achieve
Identify student behaviors
Is this behavior helping you?
Is there a better way to deal with this situation?
Ask student to identify other ways that they could have handled the situation.
Song Inpired by Alfie Kohn
by Chris Stefanick
Kohn's Student Directed Learning
Traditional methods for classroom management do not work because they require external motivation rather than internal.
Classrooms should be focused on curiosity, creativity, and cooperation.
The teacher needs to fill the roll of "guide on the side" rather than demanding center stage with an authoritarian and controlling presence.
Students will exhibit appropriate behavior if their curiosity is being nurtured.
Competition, rewards, and punishment create an environment that is opposed to learning.
Kohn believes:

Classroom Management Application of Kohn's Theories
Teachers are facilitators who look to the needs of individual students and give feedback.
Empowering students to make their own choices will help eliminate negative classroom behavior.
Encourage cooperation and freedom.
Create a true community where students are respected and individuality is celebrated so that all students should feel safe to share and participate without negative criticism.
Encourage student led classroom discussions about appropriate behavior, and time for venting.
Kohn on Classroom
Management vs. Discipline
Kohn does not believe in setting up rules for students. Instead, Kohn explains that if students are in an enriching environment that is not full of restraints or extrinsic motivators (grades, rewards, competition), students can cooperate towards higher goals of making appropriate choices for themselves and true learning will happen. The teacher is a continual facilitator in encouraging and working with students to maintain this creative, high interest, self-motivated environment.
References
Behavior is shaped by positive and negative reinforcement: B.f. Skinner(1904--1990). (2012). In Big ideas simply explained:
The psychology book. London, United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley Publishing, Inc.. Retrieved from http://search.credoreference.com.contentproxy.phoenix.edu/content/entry/dkpsycbook/behavior_is_shaped_by_positive_and_negative_reinforcement_b_f_skinner_1904_1990/0

B.F. Skinner Foundation. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.bfskinner.org

Bucher, K. T., & M, L. M. (2002). Exploring the foundations of middle school classroom management. Childhood Education, 78(2),
84-90. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/210380512?accountid=458

Charles, C. M. (2005). Building classroom discipline. Retrieved from http://faculty.washington.edu/dcheney/EDSPE503ClassroomManagement/Readings/CanterChapter.pdf

Choice Theory - William Glasser Institute. (n.d.). Retrieved July 5, 2015, from http://www.wglasser.com/the-glasser- approach/
choice-theory

Choo, K. Y. (n.d.). Education Reform: Beyond Discipline. Retrieved from http://www.educationreformbooks.net/discipline.htm

Discipline Theorists. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.elearnportal.com/courses/education/classroom-management-and-discipline/classroom-management-and-discipline-discipline-theorists

Glavic, M. (2012). Summary of major concepts covered by Harry K. Wong. Retrieved from http://glavac.com/harrywong.htm.

Kaufman, R. B., & Wandberg, R. (2010). Powerful practices for high-performing special educators. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.

Kohn, A. (1996). Beyond discipline: From compliance to community. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

Kounin, J. S. (1958). The Ripple Effect in Discipline.
The Elementary School Journal,/ 59/(3
), 158-162. Retrieved July 06, 2015, from http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.2307/999319?ref=no-x-route:549272383275be8f2b6465ee49f97328

McLeod, S.A. (2015). Skinner – Operant Conditioning. Retrieved from www.simplypsychology.org/operant-conditioning.html

Models of Classroom Management. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://wps.pearsoncustom.com pls_0558843379/153/39415/10090333.cw/index.html

Person-Centered Classroom Management. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://sfullert.weebly.com/person-centered-classroom-management.html

Positive Behavioral Interventions & Supports - OSEP. (n.d.). Retrieved July 5, 2015.

Robinson, E. H. (1985). Education for the 1980s and Beyond: An Interview with Carl Rogers.
The Journal of Humanistic Education
and Development, 23/(3)
, 98-110. doi:10.1002/j.2164-4683.1985.tb00262.x

Stefanick, C. (n.d.). Punished by Rewards. Retrieved from

T. (n.d.). The 21st Century Classroom – Alfie Kohn. Retrieved from http://www.openeducation.net/2010/05/03/the-21st-
century-classroom-alfie-kohn

Vaughn, S., & Bos, C. S. (2011). Strategies for teaching students with learning and behavior problems. Boston ;
Munich: Pearson.

Withitness in the Classroom. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.education.com/reference/article/using-xray-vision-substitute-teacher/
When looking at classroom management, there are many theories that have been developed over time. Some of these theories include Positive Behavior Support, William Glasser's Choice Theory, Kohn's Student-Directed Learning Theory, Skinner's Behavior Management Theory, Canter's Assertive Discipline Theory, and preventative theories by Carl Rogers, Jacob Kounin, and Harry Wong. Each has a unique view on how to conduct a classroom and produce the desired classroom behavior. Opinions vary when it comes to applying different theories in the classroom.
Theories on Classroom Management
Skinner's Behavior Management Theory
B.F. Skinner was a behaviorist and focused on "observable behavior." (McLeod, 2015) He proposed that behavior is affected by its consequences. He supported and tested the idea of using positive reinforcement to shape behavior. (B.F. Skinner Foundation," n.d.) Skinner observed from his experiments that "the consequences of an action were more important in shaping behavior than any stimulus that had preceded or coincided with it." (“Behavior is shaped by positive and negative reinforcement: B.F. Skinner (1904-1990),” 2012) Skinner "proposed that proper and immediate reinforcement strengthens the likelihood that appropriate behavior will be repeated." (Bucher, 2002) Basically, this method adjusts the student's environment to promote desired behavior. "Skinner himself believed that ultimately all forms of punishment were unsuitable for controlling children's behavior. ("Behavior is...", 2012) His research on operant conditioning, also known as behavior modification, has undeniably influenced the field of classroom management.
Strategies for Skinner's Classroom Management
Skinner's Behavior Management Theory can be applied in the classroom by following some simple methods. This does not imply that these methods are simple. To follow through on Skinner's ideas of behavior shaping and modification, the teacher needs to identify what the positive reinforcements are for the student, continuously be observing student behavior in light of the positive reinforcements, and always reinforce the desired behavior. Some strategies include:
providing compliments, approval, encouragement, and affirmation. "A ratio of 5 compliments for every one criticism is ....the most effective in altering behavior..." (McLeod, 2015)
ignoring inappropriate behaviors
using only positive comments even when addressing inappropriate behavior (Bucher, 2002)
developing behavior contracts where students can earn points for appropriate behaviors for purchasing a special reward (Bucher, 2002)
Token Economy
One highlighted strategy found in many reference sources is the idea of the "Token Economy." (Bucher, 2002 & McLeod, 2015)

The idea is that the desired or target behaviors are reinforced with tokens. This idea can also be used with sticker charts for younger grades. The tokens are rewards for completed assignments, good behavior, or whatever the desired behavior is. They can take the form of fake money, buttons, or any identifiable form. The tokens can be redeemed for an item or privilege. "Rather than reprimanding misbehaving students, teachers can praise students who behave properly." (Bucher, 2002)
Environmental modifications
Skinner's theory is based on behavior analysis, which looks at the relationship between actions and immediate results. The idea is to change the environment to change the behavior. The environment should be positive, encouraging and provide immediate and "incremental feedback" on behavior and class work throughout classroom time. Skinner's initial teaching program "gave incremental feedback at every stage of a project." ("Behavior is...," 2012) This process has been utilized in many educational systems. The idea is to give many opportunities for feedback instead of just waiting for a final grade on an assignment. Also, incorporating some type of reward system like the token system will help students to focus on positive not negative behavior. The classroom environment should be conducive to this positive atmosphere. It should be neat, orderly, and set up to address specific student needs.
"The ideal of behaviorism is to eliminate coercion, to apply controls by changing the environment."
B.F. Skinner
Skinner and Kohn's theories are seen as almost oppositional to each other. Skinner uses behaviors that can be seen and therefore measured instead of inferring about internal processess which he views as subjective. "The objection to inner states is not that they do not exist, but that they are not relevant in a functional analysis."
B.F. Skinner
Canter's Assertive Discipline
This classroom management protocol is based on a teacher-in-charge classroom with the goal of having a calm and productive classroom environment. Both the teacher and the students have rights in the classroom. The main duty of the teacher is to help students learn and behave responsibly.
Teacher Rights
-establish a classroom structure and routine that provides the optimal learning environment in light of your own personal needs
-determine and request appropriate behavior from the students which meet your needs and encourage th poositive social and educational development of the child
-ask for help from parents, the principal, etc. when you need assistance with a child
Student Rights
-have a teacher who is in a position to and will help them limit their inappropriate, self-disrupbehavior
-have a teacher who is in the position to and will provide positive support for appropriate behavior
-choose how to behave and know the consequences that will folllow
Canter's Principal Teachings (Charles, 2005)
Today's students have clear rights and needs that must be met if they are to be taught effectively.

Teacher's have rights and needs in the classroom as well.

The most effective teachers are who remain in control of the class while always remembering that their main duty is to help students learn and behave responsibly.

A good discipline plan, based on trust and respect, is necessary for helping students limit their counterproductive behavior.

Teachers should practice positive repetitions.

Students should enjoy positive support when they behave acceptably.

Today's teachers must not only model proper class behavior but often must directly teach it as well.

Teachers can successfully teach the majority of students typically thought of as difficult to manage.

Teachers are most effective when they use a proactive, rather than reactive, approach to discipline.

Canter - Management vs. Discipline
The Discipline Plan
1. Explain why rule are needed
2. Teach the specific rules
3. Check for understanding
4. Explain how you will reward students who follow rules
5. Explain why there are corrective actions for breaking the rules
6. Teach the corrective actions and how they are applied
7. Check again for understanding
Management
In Canter's Assertive Discipline, behavior is managed before disciplinary action is taken. The teacher models appropriate behavior for the students, and they are to follow suit. The models are repeated many times and practiced with the students so the expected behavior is known. The teacher also checks for understanding before moving on to other procedures.
Harry Wong - Proactive Classroom Management
Carl Roger's Experiential Learning
Rogers believed:
Cognitivism (the study of how people think, learn, and problem solve) caused a lack of excitement for learning.
Emotions and feelings must be included in education for it to have any true value.
The goals of education should include personal growth and development.
The highest levels of learning are self-initiated and pervasive so that they actually effect attitudes, behaviors and even the personality of the learner.
Teachers are facilitators of learners, not directors.
Successful teachers must be authentic, value students, and be empathetic.
Teachers must be non-judgemental and allow for students to be hesitant, apathetic, or fearful in order to build trust over time.
Learning is fully reliant on authentic, relevant experiences and the learner will choose to engage when he/she can participate and not feel threatened.
Roger's Humanistic Model
“Humanistic education is all for the sharing of power and empowering individuals to make decisions and choices for themselves”
(Robinson, 1985, pp. 100-101)
Roger's Student -Centered Classroom
Physical Environment
Management Strategies
Application for individuals with exceptional learning needs
Student-centered environment where teacher guides and students make self-directed, auotonomous choices.
Inquiry learning, group projects and self-assesment are encouraged.
A list of classroom rules violates the autonomy of students, they should be encouraged to have their own dialogue about how they want their classroom to operate.
Must maximize feelings of safety, creativity, individuality and encourage students to make choices.
Embraces student differences and empowers each individual to take part in their own learning
Places high value on each student as an important, autonomous human being
Jacob Kounin
Kounin focused on affecting student behavior through instructional management. He believed an effective teacher can prevent problems through highly organized lesson planning which includes high student interest and involvement.
Preventative Discipline
Kounin's theory is that the occurrence of problem behavior can be prevented
by keeping students busy and happy. If students are positively engaged in learning, they will not be tempted to exhibit bad behaviors. For this to function properly, the teacher must be highly skilled at managing both the class and the lesson.
Kounin focused on affecting student behavior through instructional management. He believed an effective teacher can prevent classroom problems through substantially organized lesson planning which includes high student interest and involvement. Teachers must be attentive to all aspects of the classroom and create challenging and enjoyable lessons.
Kounin's Key Ideas
Wong believes that students learning is best with an effective, proficient teacher. An effective teacher, according to Wong, has good classroom management skills, teaches for mastery, and has positive expectations for students. His big push for classroom management is that it begins with expectations on the first day and with consistency during the first week.
"Ripple Effect" = the correction of one student spreads to other student's making appropriate decisions
"Withitness" = the teacher's ability to know what is going on in the classroom at all times; eyes in the backof the head
"Overlapping" = a teacher's ability to take care of several issues at the same time; multitasking
"Momentum" = how a lesson flows, keeping student's attention in transitions
"Smoothness" = keeping on track without getting distracted or lost down a tangent trail
Group Focus = engaging the entire class so that no one gets bored. Building suspense, excitement, and maximizing participation through a lesson.
Wong on Discipline
Wong believes that discipline refers to behavior and has penalties and rewards. Procedures, according to Wong, refer to getting things done, and have no penalties or rewards. Effective teachers manage their classrooms, and ineffective teachers discipline their classrooms. Teachers who are well prepared with classroom procedures the first day of school, and implement consistency with procedures the first week of school, will be successful in managing their classroom.
Classroom Management VS. Discipline Management with respect to learning for exceptional learners in the classroom
Classroom management is necessary for students to know what the expectations, procedures, rules and schedule will be. This allows for predictability and security for both teacher and student. This is the basic frame of how the class will run and how each member is expected to perform.
Students with exceptional learning needs are included in this model. The responsibility is on the teacher to exhibit master teaching principles for effective lessons and keeping the class engaged. All students are challenged and encouraged.
Discipline management focuses on the diciplinary actions that will follow a student's inappropriate behavior.
Based on Skinner's theory, the actions of the student will be positively reinforced and the inappropriate behaviors will be ignored to alter the student's target behavior.
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