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Animalia Kingdom

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Paige Torrie

on 31 January 2013

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Transcript of Animalia Kingdom

Animalia Kingdom Paige Torrie The Animalia Kingdom is one of the largest and most diverse kingdoms. Approximately 97% of the organisms are invertebrates, meaning they do not have spinal columns. All organisms are multicellular and are heterotrophs, meaning they must go out to get food instead of making their own nutrients. All of them have some kind of organized transportation sytstem. They also have a common need for oxygen and to let out carbon dioxide. Common Structures Even though the Animalia Kingdom is very diverse all animals has one of the common need for in taking oxygen and expelling carbon dioxide. This happens in multiple ways throughout the animal kingdom. Many organisms use lungs for gas exchange. This is accomplished by breathing in air or oxygen, which are carried through tubes into the lungs. This gives a moist respiratory surface, an important component in the gas exchange system. Many animals in the phylum Chordata use lungs for gas exchange. Another main way is through gills, where water is intaken and oxygen is filtered through. Water creatures typically use gills for gas exchange. Other mechanisms are diffusion through skin or spores. Gas Exchange Circulation is how materials inside organisms are moved around throughout the bodies and cells. There are many different ways that this occurs. Many Chordates have hearts that pump blood that carries materials around the body. Others have tubes or muscles that help carry. Typically it is either an closed transport system, where it is passed through the gas exchange system. Open transport systems work better for smaller creatures, such as insects, where the cells are bathed directly with the materials. Circulation As there is such a large diversity in the animalia kingdom, digestion is carried out in a few different ways. Digestion is literally the breakdown of food particles. Cnidarian’s secrete digestive enzymes that breakdown food before actually absorbing it. Many organisms like worms and sponges have a digestive pouch, with one opening to let food in and waste out. Humans and many mammals have a more complex digestive system. Food is intaken and partially broken down and settled in the stomach. There, gastric juices are secreted and the food is made into a chime. It then travels through the small and large intestines, where juices and enzymes are released and nutrients extracted. The leftover waster is deposited out the second opening, the anus. Digestion Two of the most general ways that organisms in the animal kingdom reproduce is either asexually or sexually. Asexual reproduction is when the new organism is a replica of the original organism. This happens with starfish. When a piece of them breaks off that new part can regenerate into a new organism. Sexual Reproduction is when the new organism has genetics from two different parents. Fish use this method when the female lays eggs and then the male comes and fertilizes them. Many mammals will also use sexual reproduction, where the female will then carry the offspring in their womb for a period of time. Many reptiles come from eggs and are warmed by their parents till they are ready to hatch. Reproduction Animals are a main part of human life. Animals are a main food source for humans, without them we would not get the same nutrients and proteins we need. Some are also used as household pets, a source of entertainment in lives. Some organisms in the animal kingdom also help with pollination that helps keep the plants and flowers growing. Some help to rid of other pest bugs like when bats eat mosquitoes. Animals are also a use for materials such as fur coats, blubber for oil, or hooves for glue. We have also impacted animals lives too. By building more industrialized places and tearing down forests we diminish habitats and food sources for animals, causing early extinction for some organisms. Animals have also been used in the science realm, sometimes for study or for testing. This can be very harmful to the creature but give scientific results for medicine. Impact Chordata (Chordates) Arthropoda (Joint-Legged Animals) Porifera (Sponges) Cnidaria (Jellyfish, Crayfish, and Anemones) Mollusca (Molluscs) Platyhelminthes (Flatworms) Annelida (Segmented Worms) The porifera kingdom is commonly knows as sponges. These are some of the oldest known animals on earth. These creatures live in the ocean and stay attached to rocks or other surfaces on the ocean floor. To eat they filter food through the water. Sponges have a single opening for intake and outtake of particles. It also has no tissues or organs, only two layers of cells that make up the body. Pores in the walls intakes the water. It has a layer of flagellated cells that keeps everything moving inside its body Similar to sponges, the Cnidaria phyla all have one opening and the same two layers of cells. These animals are a bit more complex though as they carry a nervous system and have some muscular tissue. The Cnidarias capture their food using stingers that immobilize their food so they may begin to secrete the enzymes to start the digestion process. The two main types are polyp and medusa. Some exist as one or the other, and some even exist as both in different points of their lives. Platyhelminthes are the least complex organisms that are categorized as worms. They have a simple digestive pouch, excretory system, and nervous system with nerve cells that make up a type of brain. These organisms contain a fluid filled cavity called the coelom, that sets them apart from others. The worms contained in the Annelida phyla are the most well known worms, with their familiar segmented skin and circular body. This type of worm contains an excretion, circulation and nervous system. Members of this phyla are soft bodied although many carry a shell for protection and home. Many are aquatic and tertiary. They have two openings and a coelom. A common feature in these creatures are a mantle, a fleshy part that warms around the body and helps with the shell. Inside it has a mantle cavity that for aquatic organisms carry gills, the ones living on land carry a lung like area. They contain all the same systems and have developed organs. This is an extremely diverse phyla, with organisms from this classification group living all over the earth. They all have jointed legs and no spine. Almost all start as larvae and grow up into the creature. Most have an exoskeleton for extra strength and muscle attatchment. They have strongly developed nervous system and sense organs. Echinodermata (Starfish) All Echinodermats are aquatic organisms, meaning you will only find them in and ocean. Many depend on a water vascular system (series of tubes that moves water throughout the body) for locomotion. These creatures do not contain respiratory, excretory or circulatory systems. They diffuse the gases through tube feet. Instead of a brain, these organisms contain a central nerve ring with branches. Many reproduce asexually. Chordates have bony skeletons and almost always a spinal cord, and are typically the largest creatures. They are definitely the most recognized organisms in the animalia kingdom. Some are still invertebrates though, they are classified as chordates though as they have a rod of cartilage that runs down their body, almost like a spinal cord and have a dorsal nerve cord. Chordates contain many sense organs and systems. They have two openings for materials and digestive and circulatory systems to move them around. They typically have some type of brain or nerve functions. Memebers of the group Calcarea are the only sponges that possess spicules composed of calcium carbonate. There are over 400 species of this subphylum. Reproduction may be both sexual and asexual, by budding. The eggs hatch to free swimming larvae which attach themselves to the bottom after a few days. calcareous sponges (Calcarea) Polyp Polyp is cylindrical. They are typically attached to rocks and with their mouth’s facing up. Medusa Medusa resemble an umbrella. These animals mouths are facing downwards as they float freely in the water. Bivalves There are about 10 000 species of bivalves. The largest being 1.4 m tall and the smallest almost 0.5 mm. These do not have head regions but two shelves that make a type of valve. They use gills to collect food. They can be found in fresh and salt water. Gastropods There are at least 60 000 known species of gastropods. These are typically slightly smaller, maxing out at about 75cm. Most have shells that are shaped in a spiral with a single opening for head. These are found in marine, fresh water and terrestrial habitats. Cephalopods This is the smallest subphyla, with only around 650 species inside. These are typically the largest, being some being able to grow up to around 20m. They move by a funnel from the mantle that uses jet propulsion. They are typically scavengers or main marine predators. Chilicerata Uniramia Crustacea There are over 40 000 species catorgorized under the subphylum Crustacea. Many of these have highly specialized appendages and gas exchange occurs through gills. They have two pairs of antannae and have mandibles. Many are very edible. Asterozoa Subphylum whose members have a 5 point radial symmetry of projecting rays, and a star-shaped body. Those under this subphylum have the ability to regenerate lost limbs and move along the ocean floor, typically staying to rocks and hard places. They typically reproduce asexually but have to ability to reproduce sexually. Crinozoa Most crinoids consist of a calyx with arms supported by a stem. Crinoids more resemble a plant than an animal, but it is still classified under the animalia kingdom because they do not photosynthesize and they get their main food supplies from materials in the water. Echinozoa Typically, echinoids are globular balls but some tend to look more flattened out. They are a marine species that have a very rigid body. Because they do not typically move, they’re ways of protecting themselves is through spines or a tough extrerior. Invertebrate Invertebrates are animals that lack a backbone. Contrary to Popular belief you do not need the spinal cord and backbone that one imagines when you explain it to be a Chordate. Species in this subphyla have a notochord instead. Vertebrate Vertebrates are creatures that have a backbone. This means that has cartilaginous or bony vertebrae that surround a nerve cord and a skull that protects the brain. Species in these subphylums have those characteristics needed. Urochordata Uorchordates are commonly called “sea squirts.” They begin their life by free swimming through the ocean until they lose their tale and at that time they attach to a rock and stay there for the rest of their life span. Their nervous system then disintegrates, leaving them much less complex. They have barrel shaped bodies with two holes for water to enter in and out. They are also invertebrates. Cephalochordata Cephalochordates are a very small subphylum compared to others. These are long cylindrical shaped animals that breathe through gills and spend most of their lives in rocks or buried under sand. They reproduce sexually. Agnatha Species under the subphylum Agnatha are jawless fish. Some say that they are the earliest vertebrates. Many live in the bottom of the ocean as they have very light sensitive eyes. They typically eat by sucking on the tissues of other fish. Gnathostomata This subphylum is extremely diverse, containing 6 classes that help narrow down the species: Chondrichthyes, Osteichthyes, Amphibia, Reptillia, Aves, and Mammalia. Gnathostomates are categorized by being all jawed chordates. This helps them to track down, catch and eat food. These organisms live all aroudn the earth, in the ocean, on land, and on air. They can be aquatic, terrestrial or both. Almost all reproduce sexually and respire through either lungs, skin or gills only. Many animals are found in fossilized forms. This is when bodies of organisms are trapped in sediment. An impression is made and leaves us an idea about the animals that used to roam the earth before human time. This shows a key evolutionary link between many animals. We are now able to see links that were never known before. Here, you can see a link between a type of bird and reptile. This fossil helps to show that animals have grown and changed since the begining of time, and most of the animals we know now are not the same creature they were thousands of years ago. Some subphylums aren't even around anymore. For example the Subphylum Blastozoa in the Phylum Echinodermata was around in the Cambrian, Silurian, Ordovician, Devonian, and Permian ages. This consisted of Blastoidea , Cystoidea, Parablastoidea, and Eocrinoidea all of which can be seen here. Some animals in this kindgom no longer exist, but we can still find out their taxonomy. For example, this is the taxonomic breakdown of a T-Rex. Tyrannosaurus Rex
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Sauropsida
Suborder: Theropoda
Infraorder: Coelurosauria
Superfamily: Tyrannosauroidea
Family: Tyrannosauridae
Subfamily: Tyrannosaurinae
Genus: Tyrannosaurus What is a Phylum?
Phylum is a way of classifying organisms. Each specie belongs to a specific Phylum that is classified by characteristics. In the Animalia Kingdom there are 8 major Phylas. Inside these Phylas you can also narrow down to find: Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, and Species. This type of calcareous sponge is typically a white or off yellow colour. It is typically in the shallow waters of the ocean, clinging off rocks and inside crevices. Typically about 1-3cm diameter. Surprisingly, it is typically soft and very fragile. Some have tubes that will go slightly above the surface. They reproduce by budding. Clathrina coriacea The colors of these organisms range from a bland grey to an almost rusty red color. It stays under rocks and is extremely slimy/slippery to the touch. It is typically around Western Europe.They can grow to be about 4x5cm square. It does not have spicules but many pores all throughout. Sometimes this sponge will hitch a ride on the shells of marine animals, and that is where they will spend their life. They can change around rapidly during reproduction season (May to September) for their budding purposes. The hexactinellids, or glass sponges, are characterized by siliceous spicules consisting of six rays intersecting at right angles, much like a toy jack. While other sponges possess the ability to contract, hexactinellids do not. Hexactinellids possess a unique system for rapidly conducting electrical impulses across their bodies, allowing them to react quickly to external stimuli. glass sponges (Hexactinellida) demosponges (Demospongiae) The most diverse sponge group. Greater than 90 percent of the 5,000 known living sponge species are demosponges. There are not many fossils as their body does not easily fossilize. Demosponges take on a variety of growth forms from encrusting sheets living beneath stones to branching stalks upright in the water column. Halisarca dujardini These sponges can grow taller, to almost 20cm in height. They are a bright red color which gives them the nickname Red Beard Sponge. They resemble a finger or many large hairs. They coil around shells and some rocks. They are found in shallow, tidal areas. Many small fish call the Microciona prolifera home, living inside its coils. They filter feed and reproduce by having eggs that live inside them then released as swimming larvae. Microciona prolifera Commonly known as Moon Jellyfish for their delicate and exquisite coloration, often in patterns of spots and streaks. They can grow to be very large, from 5-40cm diameter. They swim by pullsing the upper part of their body, allowing their tentacles to have space to roam. They use these electrifying fingers to catch food. These are found in warm tropical waters. They also need very little salt to survive, the water can be as low as to have a 0.6% salt content. They reproduce sexually and carry offspring in their long arms. Aurelia aurita These Bubble Tip anemones are extremely easy to spot and identify by the way they seem to almost have bubbles growing out of them. They are found on rocks, normally with their base sitting in some type of crevice. They are normally a rose to red color. They almost always house clownfish, who do not get affected by their stinging tentacles. They use these tentacles to reach out and grab food, and then shorten returning to the bubble form. Entacmaea quadricolor This type of oyster is found in the Pacific Ocean, which is why they are nicknames Pacific Oysters. It is a white to grey color sometimes with some purple streaks. It is extremely rough and is found sitting on shallow ledges or on rocks. They like sheltered areas. It normally has one side that is longer than the other, overlapping the edges so it closes firmly. They are extremely territorial, when they enter a space they tend to take right over and be the dominant organism. Crassostrea gigas Arion Ater This European Black Slug is native to western and southern Europe and lives in the forest there. The slug is a very large boneless black cylinder. Normally it stays about 10-15cm long but if needed it can sometimes stretch itself out to almost 20cm long. It has two sets of tentacles for feeling around and finding food. Interestingly, it has a toothed tongue, called a radula, that helps to grab and insert food into its mouth. Slugs breathe through their skin but do have a sort of lung like cavity inside. They have mucus all over their body that helps to move them along, and also helps with respiration. It typically eats fungi. These are commonly known as Giant Squid and are perfectly named. The largest found Giant Squid was 16m long. These creatures live deep underwater and are almost never seen. The information known about these creature is mostly from when scientists find their dead bodies. They have two feeding arms and can easily catch and eat organisms up to 10m long. They are believed to be in every ocean except for very polar parts or very tropical parts. It is not fully known exactly how they reproduce but it has been shown that they reproduce sexually. To see to catch their food squids have very large eyes that help to absorb the ltitle light in the depths of their habitat. Architeuthis dux Taenia solium Pork Tapeworm's bodies are long and flat, made up of many segments called proglottids. These proglotti are each a reproductive unit, essentially making them a factory to produce gametes. These organisms have a need for a host to survive. This means that they live inside another organisms, typically mammals, and feed off them and their nutrients. Typically they spread by being eaten by others. This type of tapeworm can live up to 25 years inside a host. They can cause constipation, diarahea and stomach discomfort. They hold on by 7 to 13 branches and 4 hooks in the scolex. They can be diagnosed by finding eggs in the feces of hosts. Lumbricus terrestris Earthworms average at about 10-20cm long. The organisms organs are spread along the body in different segments. They move by muscle contraction and relaxtion. They feed off dead plant material and organic matter in the soil. Earthworms have both male and female sex organs present yet they reproduce by cross fertilization. These creatures respire through their skin, using the soft surface and mucus. The amazing thing about earthworms is that they can regenerate small parts of their body if they are to lose them. This type of spider, a arrow-head spider, is very distinctive with its triangular body. This triangle can be many different colors including green, blue, pink, or white. It is a southern species, found in southern states like North Carolina. They prefer to live in wooded areas where it is easier to make a web. It is very tiny, with a leg span of only about 1 inch wide. It’s only defense against predators is two horns located near its triangular abdomen. They have no poison and are therefore harmless to humans. Verrucosa arenata Organisms in the subphylum Chilicerata have bodies that are divided into two regions, an abdomen and Cephalothorax (a fused head & thorax). They do not have antannae and many have some type of fangs. This is one of the most diverse subphylas in the Arthroda Phylum. These anthropods all have one pair of antennae and one or two maxillae. All respipre using the trachea, body surface and/or gills. This subphylum is so diverse that it is made up of three classes. The first is Class Diplopoda which is millipedes. The second is Class Chilopoda, which is centipedes. The final class is Insecta, which is extremely diverse. It contains anything with 6 legs and a 3 part body (head, thorax, abdomen). They all use the tracheal system to respire. These are commonly known as the flat black millipedes, which is exactly what they look like. They have a more flat body than other millipedes, and it is typically black but can sometimes be a much lighter color. They eat leaves and vegetation but are sometimes known to eat other millipedes. They are found in Europe and many times in farmers crops. Their body is made up of many segments and has two legs per segment. Brachydesmus superus The “signal crayfish” is found commonly in the United States waters. It grows to about 15cm in length. It is normally a brownish color with more crimson claws. They are omnivores, so they eat almost anything they can find. They prefer cool waters and very shallow areas. They prefer freshwater. Pacifastacus leniusculus These are commonly known as Northern Starfish as they are found around North America. They like hard surfaces such as rocks and to be no more than 800m down. They are typically a vibrant pink color but can be purple and fade away to white at the end of their arms . They have knobs all over them that make their surface undesirable to the touch. They typically reproduce by budding or fragmentation. Leptasterias muelleri The common name for this organism is the Orange Sea Lilly. And surprisingly it is categorized under this subphyla. These have 20-35 arms and a stem like body that helps it get more height to reach its food, plankton. During the day these creatures shut and hide their crown, leaving only their arms showing. They reproduce sexually and are found in almost every ocean on the bottom with their stem reaching into the sand. Nemaster rubiginosa Eucidaris tribuloides The Pencil Urchin is native to the Caribbean and the waters surrounding it. Its body is a thick brown circle with multiple thick sticks shooting out of it. During the day the urchin stays under rocks but at night it comes out and forages on top of the rock. It eats algae and sometimes will eat part of sponges. They don’t very often reproduce, but some at specific times will. “Sea squirts” have by far one of the most interesting ways of catching their food. Every four hours or so they create a type of mucus house. This is literally a way for them to filter out the food they want. Large objects cannot get in but small ones come right in and are easily there for the sea squirt to eat. This is one of the only urochordates that is free swimming. They are found in deep parts of the ocean and are almost entirely sea through Oikopleura Lancelets are very small, being only about 2cm in length and a silvery almost transparent color. They prefer to live in shallower tropical areas. They have a notochord and gills slits in their pharynx which proves that they are indeed Chrodates. It feeds on planket and other small particles in the water. It burrows in the sand and shows only its anterior. Branchiostoma Lampreys very much resemble and eel but differ as they have a jawless mouth that uses suction to attach to food. Using a ring of cartilage and some small teeth it sucks tissues and fluids out of fish. They like temperate waters and coastal seas where they sit on the bottom. They can grow to be 40 inches long. The larvae are found in the muddy waters where they can take an extremely long time, up to 7 years, to change to the adult stage. In this stage they filter on microorganisms. Petromyzon marinus Myxine glutinosa This is commonly called the Atlantic Hagfish as that is where this jawless fish is native to. It is typically a pinkish color. These fish are almost completely blind and depend on touch and smell. Around this animals tongue is a rign of tentacles that helps secure food and get it back into the mouth. They eat marine worms and other small creatures. Because they have such a low metabolism they can go as long as seven months without eating. Carcharodon carcharias Great White Sharks are found in almost all oceans but are very common around South Africa, Australia and some parts of the United States. They are found from around the surfline to far out into the ocean with record depths. They like to stay near the bottom so that they can attack from beneath their prey. This type of shark's have an extremely variating lengths, some can be up to many meters long, and some much smaller. They reproduce sexually every 2 or 3 years. Sharks will eat almost anything from the ocean. Sharks only major predator is humans, as we tend to kill them for food (in some Asian countries) but mostly to keep ourselves safe, although shark attacks are not extremely common. They are listed as vulnerable on the endagernment scale. Hippocampus bargibanti One of the most well known bony fish in the class Osteichthyes are the sea horse. One extremely interesting fact about sea horses is the fact that they can change the color pigment in their skin. They do this to blend in or to show their mood. They are found in reefs along the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. The sea horses do reproduce sexually but opposite of most other animals. The male sea horse gives birth and then continues to carry the offspring till it reaches maturity to go on itself. The sea horse uses its tail to hang on the coral and sea weed and catch their food as it floats by. Dendrobates azureus Poison dart frogs are well known around the world for their bright vibrant colors. They Blue Poison Dart frog is no exeption. As assumed by their name they are a very vibrant blue color typically with some black spotting. The color is to warn predators of the fact that they are poisonous. It can grow to 4.5cm long, so it is not very large. It relies on insects and bugs to be it's main food source. They begin their lives as tadpoles in the water, breathing through gills, then grow to maturity where they leave the water and respire using lungs and through skin. They are native to all tropical forests and areas. Crocodylus niloticus Commonly known as Nile Crocodile because they are found around the Nile river in Egypt. The range from 5-7m long with a short, oval shaped snout. Inside that snout is rows of sharp teeth made perfectly for attacking and eating any mammals, birds, or fish that it can find. Crocodiles live along river banks, that way they can spend their days lazing in the water and come onto land to sleep, nest, reproduce and raise their young. They are extremely dangerous to humans as they are extremely territorial and are so large that they can take down a grown adult. Trichoglossus haematodus The Rainbow Lorikeet is known for its bright rainbow colors. They are found native to Australia. They grow to be about 12 inches long. They have a long life span, up to around 20 years. They are considered a pest by many farmers and food for snakes. These birds are pollen vectors, which means they transport pollen and help the flowers. They eat nectar, berries or some flower parts. These birds breed for life, so they have one mate for all of their lifespan. They lay multiple eggs and hide them in tree crevices. Lorikeets are known to take over areas that they occupy, not allowing other birds to live in the same territory. Equus Zebra Commonly called Mountain Zebras. These Zebras live around Angolia, Namibia, and South Africa. They live on the mountains and plaines there. They can weigh between 520-820 pounds. They all have stripes but not two zebras have the exact same stripe pattern. Zebras have large ears that they use to let heat out. They use their white hair to reflect sun and keep themselves cool. They are grass eaters, so they eat almost whatever they find on the ground. They are extreme prey for almost all carnivores in their surrounding area. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42
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