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Plagiarism

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Jiye Park

on 15 April 2014

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Transcript of Plagiarism

Plagiarism
Common Knowledge
If you find the same information undocumented in at least five credible sources.


If you think the information you're presenting is something your readers will already know, or something that a person could easily find in general reference sources.


When must you cite work?
When you do not need to cite work
Preventing Plagiarism
Definition
Stealing and passing off the ideas and words of another as one's own.
Using another person's production without crediting the source.

(Source: Merriam Webster Dictionary)
In-Text Citations and Works Cited Page
Parenthetical citation:
referring to the works of others in your text. Involves placing relevant source information in parentheses after a quote, paraphrase, and summary.

Citations not only give credit to the original author, but also allow readers to find the original information.

Any source information that you provide in-text must correspond to the source information on the Works Cited page.


Examples of Plagiarism
Different Forms of Plagiarism
Intentional Plagiarism:
Occurs when a person
neglects to cite their sources
misquotes their sources
paraphrases without

attribution.
When the information you use is not your own
Words or ideas presented in a magazine, book, newspaper, song, TV program, movie, Web page, computer program, letter, advertisement, etc.
Information you gain through interviewing or conversing with another person, face to face, over the phone, or in writing
When you submit your previous work or mix parts of previous works.
Submitting the same piece of work for assignments in different classes without permission.
Reprinting any diagrams, illustrations, charts, pictures, or other visual materials
Reposting any electronically-available media, including images, audio, video, or other media
Your own lived experiences, observations, insights, thoughts, and conclusions about a subject
You are using "common knowledge," (folklore, common sense observations, myths, urban legends, and historical events)
Copy and Paste
Taking someone else's exact phrases or sentences to claim as your own.

Word Switch
Copy and Pasting a sentence and changing a few key words, keeping the main idea intact.

Style
When you follow a source's exact style and formatting. Copying another author's reasoning style.

Idea
Taking someone else's idea and passing it off as your own.
Keep track of what ideas are not your own and which
words
,
sentences
, and
ideas
you have borrowed.
Different Forms of Plagiarism
When in doubt, cite!
Self Plagiarism:
Ice Ice Baby vs. Under Pressure
Your own results obtained through lab or field experiments
Your own artwork, digital photographs, video, audio, etc.
When you do not have to refer to other sources for information
Common knowledge
Not common knowledge
How Opal Mehta Got Kissed, Got Wild, and Got a Life by Kaavya Viswanathan
Harvard sophomore who was featured in the New York Times for her book.
It was discovered that she plagiarized portions of the novel from books by Megan McCafferty.
She apologized, saying that she was a "huge fan" of the books when she was in high school and that she "wasn’t aware of how much [she] may have internalized Ms. McCafferty’s words."
Later, more plagiarized sections were discovered.
McCafferty
Viswanathan
Sloppy Firsts
, page 7:
"Bridget is my age and lives across the street. For the first twelve years of my life, these qualifications were all I needed in a best friend. But that was before Bridget's braces came off and her boyfriend Burke got on, before Hope and I met in our seventh grade Honors classes."
Opal Mehta
, page 14:
"Priscilla was my age and lived two blocks away. For the first fifteen years of my life, those were the only qualifications I needed in a best friend. We had bonded over our mutual fascination with the abacus in a playgroup for gifted kids. But that was before freshman year, when Priscilla's glasses came off, and the first in a long string of boyfriends got on."
Second Helpings
, page 67:
“... but in a truly sadomasochistic dieting gesture, they chose to buy their Diet Cokes at Cinnabon.”
Opal Mehta,
page 46:
“In a truly masochistic gesture, they had decided to buy Diet Cokes from Mrs. Fields ...”
Where you must cite work
"As I was writing, I genuinely believed that every single word I wrote was my own. I was so surprised and horrified when I found these similarities."
You may quote specific sources, but once you have, you MUST cite them with the use of parentheses.

You MUST cite after each sentence you directly use from a source.

Example:
Martin Luther King wrote that the city of Birmingham's "white power structure" left African-Americans there "no alternative" but to demonstrate....("Letter from the Birmingham Jail" para. 5)
Kinsella
Can You Keep a Secret?
, page 350:
“And we’ll tell everyone you got your Donna Karan coat from a discount warehouse shop.”
Jemima gasps. “I didn’t!” she says, colour suffusing her cheeks.
“You did! I saw the carrier bag,” I chime in. “And we’ll make it public that your pearls are cultured, not real...”
Jemima claps a hand over her mouth...
“OK!” says Jemima, practically in tears. “OK! I promise I’ll forget all about it. I promise! Just please don’t mention the discount warehouse shop. Please.”
Opal Mehta,
page 282:
“And I’ll tell everyone that in eighth grade you used to wear a ‘My Little Pony’ sweatshirt to school every day,” I continued.
Priscilla gasped. “I didn’t!” she said, her face purpling again.
“You did! I even have pictures,” I said. “And I’ll make it public that you named your dog Pythagoras...”
Priscilla opened her mouth and gave a few soundless gulps...
“Okay, fine!” she said in complete consternation. “Fine! I promise I’ll do whatever you want. I’ll talk to the club manager. Just please don’t mention the sweatshirt. Please.”
Unintentional Plagiarism:
Examples of Plagiarism
Shortcut:
Buying essays or asking someone to write for you so you can claim it as your own.

Making up Sources:
Not making it obvious where you are drawing on somebody else's work.
Taking someone else's ideas and putting them into your words without telling where you got the ideas.
Using a source several times, but only pointing it out once.
Including citations to non-existent or inaccurate information about sources

Different Forms of Plagiarism
Information that is considered a well-established fact verifiable in five or more sources.
Common sayings and proverbs
Historical dates, places and events.
Examples:
Romantic poetry is characterized by the "spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings" (Wordsworth 263).

Wordsworth extensively explored the role of emotion in the creative process (263).

We see so many global warming hotspots in North America likely because this region has "more readily accessible climatic data and more comprehensive programs to monitor and study environmental change . . ." ("Impact of Global Warming" 6).


Example: Barack Obama is the President of the United States

Use others' ideas or writing as
support for
,
not in place of,
your own ideas.

-When taking notes for a paper, always distinguish your ideas from those of your source.
Establish a consistent pattern.
[(information obtained from another source in brackets or parentheses)]
your own ideas without brackets.
original
and
non-original ideas
.
-Paraphrase unless you are quoting directly.
-Rework and shorten it.

-Support your point with the words of an authority, or when original wording is unusual, strong, or characteristic of the speaker.
-Using only a few quotes to strengthen your main points shows that you understand your topic.

Case Study:
Works Cited
"Blueprint Lays Out Clear Path for Climate Action." Environmental
Defense Fund. Environmental Defense Fund, 8 May 2007. Web. 24 May 2009.
Dean, Cornelia. "Executive on a Mission: Saving the Planet." New York
Times. New York Times, 22 May 2007. Web. 25 May 2009.
Ebert, Roger. "An Inconvenient Truth." Rev. of An Inconvenient Truth, dir.
Davis Guggenheim. rogerebert.com. Sun-Times News Group, 2 June 2006. Web. 24 May 2009.
GlobalWarming.org. Cooler Heads Coalition, 2007. Web. 24 May 2009.
"The Impact of Global Warming in North America." Global Warming: Early
Signs. 1999. Web. 23 Mar. 2009.
An Inconvenient Truth. Dir. Davis Guggenheim. Perf. Al Gore, Billy West.
Paramount, 2006. DVD.
Milken, Michael, Gary Becker, Myron Scholes, and Daniel Kahneman. "On
Global Warming and Financial Imbalances." New Perspectives Quarterly 23.4 (2006): 63. Print.
Nordhaus, William D. "After Kyoto: Alternative Mechanisms to Control
Global Warming." American Economic Review 96.2 (2006): 31-34. Print.
---. "Global Warming Economics." Science 9 Nov. 2001: 1283-84. Science
Online. Web. 24 May 2009.
Shulte, Bret. "Putting a Price on Pollution." Usnews.com. US News & World
Rept., 6 May 2007. Web. 24 May 2009.
Wordsworth, William. Lyrical Ballads. London: Oxford U.P., 1967. Print.
In 2012, it was reported that Jonah Lehrer had "self-plagiarized" several blog posts he had submitted to The New Yorker.
He reused his own exact wording without noting it in his work at NewYorker.com, Wired, the New York Times Magazine, the Wall Street Journal, and in his 2009 book,
How We Decide
.
Examples of Plagiarism
The Wall Street Journal
blog post from October 15, 2011.
"The Science of Irrationality"
Here's a simple arithmetic question: "A bat and ball cost $1.10. The bat costs $1 more than the ball. How much does the ball cost?"
The vast majority of people respond quickly and confidently, insisting the ball costs 10 cents. This answer is both incredibly obvious and utterly wrong. (The correct answer is five cents for the ball and $1.05 for the bat.) What's most impressive is that education doesn't really help; more than 50% of students at Harvard, Princeton and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology routinely give the incorrect answer.
The New Yorker
blog post from June 12, 2012.
"Why Smart People are Stupid"
Here’s a simple arithmetic question: A bat and ball cost a dollar and ten cents. The bat costs a dollar more than the ball. How much does the ball cost?
The vast majority of people respond quickly and confidently, insisting the ball costs ten cents. This answer is both obvious and wrong. (The correct answer is five cents for the ball and a dollar and five cents for the bat.)
Full transcript