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AMAZON PROYECT

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Julio Nicolas Sandoval Leon

on 18 March 2014

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Transcript of AMAZON PROYECT

This is the leading cause of
deforestation in the Amazon
jungle, since 1966, it represents 38% of deforestation in various countries
DIMENSIONS
The Amazon basin covers 73 % of
the whole jungle, measuring 6.144.727 km², 4000 km² being part of Brasilian territory but . The population density is very low, being 4 habitants/square kilometer.
There are 24 big cities spread around the various countries but only 1% of the population living in the amazon jungle is considered to be fully developed. The deforestation rate is 5%, and 13% (or 6000000 square km) of the Ancient Jungle has already been destroyed by humans.
AMAZON PROJECT
COUNTRIES
Amazon River
It is the second largest river in the world and is born in Nauta, Peru. It has th largest waterflow with a discharge of 209,000 cubic meters per second. Its width is between 1.6 and 10 kilometers.
Other Rivers that flow into the Amazon River
There are some other rivers that flow into the Amazon River those are:Putumayo, Caquetá, Vaupés, Guainía, Morona, Pastaza, Nucuray, Urituyacu, Chambira, Tigre, Nanay, Napo, and Huallaga.
Climate
It has a tropical climate this means it is hot and humid throughout the year with an average temperature of 27 Degrees Celsius. It rains a lot throughout the year.
Fish
It has neotropical fish with 5,600 known species,Arapaima,Arawana,Piranha,
Candiru, Peacock Bass, Bicuda,Redtail Catfish,Jacunda,Cachama,Pirapitinga,
Payara and the Wolf Fish.
Amphibians
There are various species of frogs, toads and tree frogs. Some species are the poison dart frogs, Giant Cane Toads, Monkey Frog, Brown Tree Frog, Leaf Toad, Tree Frog, Rainforest Toad and many more.
Medicinal Plants
Some medicinal plants are the Annatto, Clavillia, Curare, Cocoa Tree, Trumpet Tree ,and the Suma. Obviously there are many more but these are examples.
The Amazon Jungle is a vast region that covers the following nine countries: Mostly Brasil, Colombia, Peru, Venezuela, Ecuador, Bolivia and the Guianas: Guyana, French Guiana and Suriname.
EXPLORERS
HENRY WALTER BATES (1825-1892)

Bates set off with naturalist companion Alfred Russell Wallace on an Amazon expedition at the age of 23 to collect animals in the name of Natural History. Charles Darwin wrote that aong Bates discoveries were 8000 previosuly unknown animal species to science and a (then) new butterfly mimicry theory.
Alexander von Humboldt – Naturalist, Geographer & Explorer (1769-1859)
Percy Fawcett – Artillery Officer, Archaeologist & Explorer (1867-1925)
After being liutenant in the British Army, he started planning his own personnal mission after extensively exploring these South American regions which he believed there was more to see:Tapajos, Xingu, Araguaya and Tocantins these amazonian regions were considered of great geographical and archaeological interest.

Sydney Possuelo – Ethnographer, Social Activist & Explorer
He is brasilian´s
gobernment most experienced official when it comes to isolated Indian Tribes, and helps the ones that have been affected by the "developed" world of farmers, miners and other industries that are interested in their territory
Richard Spruce – Botanist & Explorer (1817-1893)

A passionate for plants his collections
and expeditions were almost as extensive as
the ones Humboldt made. He specialized in
working with Malaria patients and live with
Indian Tribes for a long time. Spruce provided the first detailed description of a jungle vine now known by the scientific name of Banisteropsis caapi, or simply Caapi in Brazil, Peru, Ecuador, and Colombia.
Born in Berlin, he conducted exensive expeditions from 1799 to 1804 describing, identifying and collecting everything he saw. His aim was to improve the understanding of the physical geography on the countries he visited, including Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela, and Mexico.
Humboldt brought many new world animals recognition. One, named the uakari monkey was encountered by Humboldt while he was at a Jesuit mission.

INDUSTRY
CATTLE RANCHING
Colonization and subsequent subsistence agriculture
a program imposed by the Brasilian government gave acres of rainforest to the poor, Under the program, colonists would be granted a 250-acre lot, six-months' salary, and easy access to agricultural loans, it would cost Brasil US$65,000 to settle each family.
COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE
Soy producers have affected a lot the
Amazon, but the situation changed a little
when a Campaign by Greenpeace forced soy producers to limit the damage in Brasil, though its still widespread in Bolivia and Paraguay.
DIVERSITY
LOGGING
Supossedly, there are strict controls and licenses for logging in the Amazon but illegal logging still remains a widespread habit in Peru and Brasil
OTHER CAUSES
hydroelectric projects
There are many dams to be built in the next 20 years, the Balbina
Dam flooded 4200 square km
Mining
There have been unexpected invasions of rainforest lands across Brasil, Venezuela, Colombia, and Peru. A 2013 study found that the area torn up for small-scale gold mining increased 400 percent in 13 years
Oil and Gas
Large blocks of rainforest have been granted for exploration and exploitation licenses in recent years.
INSECTS
Amazon has almost 47% biodiversity in the whole planet making it the worlds biggest hot spot and get the name Earth lung
Bullet ant
This ant defines the most painful sting from an insect on the Schmidt pain index. In the eastern Amazon, some tribes use these ants in initiation rituals as a right of passage for young men.
FAUNA
Caterpillars
JAGUAR
These jewel caterpillars have a goo-like coating that predators like rainforest ants have difficulty penetrating. The goo protects the larvae until they metamorphosise into winged moths that can fly from danger.
Longhorn Beetle
They can snap a pencil in a half.
They either roam thr forest floor
or fly through the trees, their set
of wings is protected with a casing
Panthera onca
Its a feline , a carnivore , its the biggest cat in America and the third in the world . It has the ability to roar like the lion , tiger, and leopard.
Although it looks pretty much like a leopard but you can differ for the hair pattern , the weight and their different genetics.
The great amazon jungle:
-Jaguar specification
-Border countries
-Climate
-Fauna
-Flora
-Rivers
-Fish
-Dimensions
-Medicinal plants
-Industry
-Anecdotes


WHAT'S THE AMAZON?
The amazon jungle is the biggest tropical jungle and the most biodiverse place in the world . Having one of the biggest histories of the world and being a place were 2 new species are discovered every week.

With one of the biggest biological potentials on Earth. It is distributed in 9 countries and one of many favourite places for turism specially ecoturism. It is located in South America in a tropical temperature and is feddby the Amazon River and its tributaries. Its emblematic animal is the pink dolphin and this jungle is home to million of indian tribes as to magic and mystery.


With millions of animals like

mammals
reptiles

birds
fish
insects and arachnids
FLORA
With most medicinal plants than any single biome
Discovered that it has enough medicinal plants to cure almost any disease
Taxonomy
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Carnivora
Family: Felidae
Genus: Panthera
Species: P. onca
Big cat found from north to south in America
it is more common in the amazon jungle .It is one of the 4 cats that can roar .
Leaves from15- 20 years in captivity and up to 13 + in the wild it has been reported a mayor lifespan of 28 years from a female. They weight about 40 -45 kg.Its body length is 1.5 -1.8 (head to tail) and the tail measures 70 -91 cm.
It was first describeb by Linnaeus in1758 , its heart can weight from 2.4-6.1 kg and can also be called Felis Onca.
Preservation
Jaguars are endangered because hunters sell their skin and indians kill them because of their rituals and because they sometimes attack livestock.The Brazilian government has set up preservation strategies to protect it as wellas some central amarican countries.
The biggest reserves are in Brazil , Colombia, Panama, Belize,Bolivia and Costa Rica.
Breeding
Jaguar reach sexual maturity at 2-4 years depending on the specimen and in captivity they bred easily. The male grabs the female fr about 10 minutes and roars at her if she tries to leave.
3-4 months later the little cubs hatch they usually have 2- 3 cubs but a report said that they were once reported 5 cubs in a zoo in USA.
Hybrids
The members of the panthera genus can interbreed with themselves and can make an exception for the puma concolor that can breed with leopards.


Jaguars can breed with lions, tigers, and leopards
TIGUAR
LEGUAR
JAGLION
The panther
It is the same jaguar but a melanin problem it lacks of yellow pigments make the black pigments more obvious giving black jaguar.
TRIBES
The amazon has been home to thousand of tribes since human first established in the jungle , since the first moments the humans were amazed because all these animals and created made myths.
KAYAPO TRIBE
PANARA TRIBE
TICUNA TRIBE

HUITOTOS TRIBE
OCAINA TRIBE
COCAMA TRIBE

YAGUA TRIBE

MACUNA TRIBE

GUARINIE TRIBE
The pink dolphin myth

1.When the sun goes down, they morph into handsome young men dressed in all white. They come ashore, strictly for the purpose of seducing the wives and young girls of local villages and impregnate them. Before the sun comes up, these shape-shifting encantados turn back into dolphins.
2. If you wish to find a rare Amazonian manatee, you must first locate an Amazon river dolphin and make peace with it. The dolphin is considered the manatee’s guardian.
3.Don’t ever make eye contact with a boto. If you do, you’ll have the most dreadful nightmares for the rest of your life.
Bibliography: http://worldwildlife.org/blogs/good-nature-travel/posts/five-myths-about-amazon-river-dolphins
AMPHIBIANS
TRANS-AMAZONIAN HIGHWAY
history:The Trans-Amazonian Highway (official designation BR-230,, was inaugurated on September 27, 1972. It is 4,000 km long, making it the third longest highway in Brazil. It runs through the Brazilian states of Paraíba, Ceará, Piaui, Maranhão, Tocantins, Pará and Amazonas, from the proximities of Saboeiro up until the town of Lábrea.
the highway was intended to to integrate these regions with the rest of the country, and with Colombia, Peru and Ecuador. Another main goal of the project was to alleviate the effects of the drought affecting the Northeast region of the country by providing a route to largely empty land in the middle of the rainforest, which could be settled.[1] It was originally planned to be a fully paved highway 5200 kilometers long. However, these plans were modified following its inauguration.[2]
In particular, because of high construction costs and Brazil financial crisis in the late 1970s, only a part of the highway was paved, from its beginning to 200 km ahead of Marabá. The lack of a fully sealed road causes many problems. Travel on the non-paved stretches of the highway is extremely difficult during the region's rainy season between October and March.[3] In the wet season cars often get stuck in the poorly constructed road and in the dry season there are often pot holes in the dry mud roads that damage vehicles.
NAUTA PERU
The Amazon River is born here
In mount Mismi
At 5.597 meters above sea level
then it reaches nauta and joins the river general current
WHERE IT FINISHES
It leads to the Atlantic ocean at northern brazil after almost 6200 km and its lead is of 240 km
SNOW
PRECIPITATION
OXYGEN
OXYGEN
OXYGEN
ANECDOTES
Personal: At the amazon I had a great time I had the chance to see a manatee in the beach and also see like 20 pink dolphins in Benjamin Constant. In the night safari We saw jaguar faces , a tarantula , and a sloth. I saw many Indians and had a great time.

Its been one of the greatest trips of all my life.
recommendations
-Use mosquito repellent all the time
-Never forget your camera
-try to always look at the river
-never close your eyes for more than 10 seconds
amazon biological potential
Affecting almost every climate and oxygen level in the planet the amazon i s a very import place to produce humidity for rain , oxygen, and were the biggest wildlife sanitarium in Earth exists
Having all this species helps to maintain the balance of natural cycle and evolution and gene flow in nature.
THANK YOU
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