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Standard 2: Operating Systems

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Nicole Drevlow

on 8 April 2013

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Transcript of Standard 2: Operating Systems

Operating Systems Common Operating Systems Let's look at a few common operating systems that are used today. These Include: Windows Mac OS Linux DOS Windows Windows has a few different operating systems. The Windows operating systems in use today are: Windows 7, Windows Vista, Windows XP, and Windows 2000. Windows 7 Windows 7 is the newest operating system. It includes new features such as: Pinning programs to the taskbar Snapping (which maximizes a window as you drag it to the edge of the screen) A new indexing program to help you find documents more efficiently. This also allows you to save your search results in a folder for easier access. Another thing to note is that in Windows 7, you cannot use the Classic Start menu layout. In Windows Vista this was an option, but it is no longer available in Windows 7. Windows Vista Windows Vista is another Windows operating system that was released in 2007. Windows Vista has an exclusive program: Sidebar- The Sidebar is the area where you can put gadgets on the side of your desktop. Gadgets are things such as a CPU meter, a clock, or a weather forecast.
The Sidebar is collapsible, so if you don't want to display them for a minute, you can simply hide them with a click. Some new functions were also introduced starting with Vista, which include: Windows Aero: This changed the appearance of the open windows on your desktop. The borders became translucent, so you were able to see behind them. Also, if you rolled over a thumbnail on the task bar of a closed window, a small preview would be able to be seen. UAC: This stands for User Account Control, which is a program that requires an administrative password when you want to download a program. Windows XP Windows XP is about 11 years old, but it is still fairly up to date and functional. It doesn't have the more advanced features of Windows 7 or Windows XP, but it does have some customization capabilities. You can apply the original Start Menu layout on Windows XP. Below is a picture of a desktop that uses Windows XP. Windows 2000 Windows 2000 was released in February of 2000, only a year before Windows XP was available. Windows 2000 was released in four different versions: Professional, Server, Advanced Server, and Datacenter Server. Windows 2000 runs with NTFS 3.0; the NTFS file system will be explained shortly. Linux Linux is a different sort of operating system than any other kind. It was first introduced in 1991 by Linus Torvalds. It is a free program that is available to any who wish to download and use it. Linux is an open source program, which means that you can customize the code, unlike with Windows which is already defined in what it is composed of. Overall, it is a bit harder to run than Windows or another operating system, but if you prefer customization and control in what you want, then it would be a good option. DOS DOS stands for Disk Operating System; it refers to the operating systems that were based upon the DOS operating system that was invented by IBM. This type of operating system is hardly, if ever, used. Commands were put into the computer by typed commands, not by using a mouse. Mac OS The common Mac Operating Systems in use today are now called OS X, previously called Mac OS X. The recent Operating systems have been named after felines: the names began in 2000, and they are: Kodiak, Cheetah, Puma, Jaguar, Panther, Tiger, Leopard, Snow Leopard, Lion, and Mountain Lion. Below is a picture of a desktop with the OS X Mountain Lion. Comparison and Contrast Here we are going to compare and contrast the features of different operating systems. Windows VS Linux We are first going to look at how Windows and Linux are similar. Similarities: They both can run programs on the computer through the Graphical User Interface Linux and Windows are both relatively stable systems There are not that many similarities between Windows and Linux; now let's look at the differences. Differences They both use different types of file systems With Windows it is best if you have Anti-virus software installed to protect your computer.
In Linux, there is no need for anti-virus software, as you have direct control and customization options in the operating system. In Windows you have to defragment the disk to improve PC maintenance.
In Linux there is no need to defragment, as Linux takes care of this for you constantly while the computer is running. Sometimes you will encounter hardware problems with Linux, as a lot of programs are not specifically targeted for Linux.
In Windows it is hard to find a problem with hardware due to it being a widely-used operating system. Comparing and contrasting Open Source and Proprietary software Open Source software, such as the Linux OS, are free to download and use and they are customizable. Proprietary software you have to purchase and they are not customizable. The plus side is that they are easy to maintain and use. Let's look at how they are alike and different. Compare Contrast Since open source is customizable, you can use a GUI type interface if you so choose; this makes it similar to the proprietary software. An obvious difference is that you do not have to pay for open source software, while proprietary software costs money. With open source software, it is nearly impossible for viruses to take a hold, so there is no need for anti-virus software.
With proprietary software it is necessary to have some sort of anti-virus software installed to protect your computer. With open source software you have to customize your code and know a little about your way around the system when you first start.
Some people only want to use the computer for simple tasks and do not want the hassle of messing with code. This makes proprietary software more attractive to them. It depends on your point of view, but both types of software are fairly easy to learn if you pay attention closely.
Although you can customize the code in open source systems, it is becoming easier and easier to use UNIX based systems, which include Linux. When you install a proprietary software operating system, it usually just comes with the bare minimum of programs.
In an open source operating system like Linux, there are many programs that you can use as soon as you download it; you do not have to go and download lots of extra programs. File formats File formats are the different ways that files are stored on a computer or technological device. Common file formats are: NTFS(NT File System) FAT(File Allocation Table). Windows uses the NTFS file format for their NT file system. With the NTFS system, the files are spread throughout a few disks of the computer. The files are sorted into directories. NTFS FAT You can also easily check for files that may have been deleted using this type of software because it keeps a log of what files have been taken in and out. NTFS is best used on systems with 400 MB of space or more. With the FAT file system, performance begins to degrade at this point, but not with NTFS. A downside of NTFS is that it is best not used with under 400 MB of space. The FAT system is simple compared to NTFS. Data is sorted into the File Allocation Table (thus the name FAT) and this must be stored in a fixed location so that the boot files for the system can be easily located. DOS and Linux Now we will look at how DOS and Linux are similar and different to each other. Comparison Contrast Both the DOS and Linux use a command-line system to perform operations. This means that to use both of them, you need to have at least a basic understanding of commands to type into the computer to perform operations. The DOS operating system can only perform one task a time, whereas Linux can multitask and run several applications at once. Both Linux and DOS are compatible with the x86 program files, although this is outdated. The x86 was released in 1978 to run on Intel's 8-bit microprocessor. DOS is not an open source operating system; Linux is, and therefore Linux is free while you have to pay for the DOS software. DOS is designed to run on a 16-bit processor and can use a 32-bit processor if it is compatible. Linux runs on either a 32-bit or a 64-bit processor. Mac OS X and Windows Now we'll look at the similarities and differences of Mac OS X and Windows. Comparison Contrast Both the Mac OS X and Windows use a Graphical User Interface to interact with the computer. They can both run on a 32-bit and 64-bit processor. Both OS X and Windows are proprietary software which cannot be customized by the user. This means that you will have to use anti-virus software with both operating systems. While Windows runs on a DLL(Dynamic Link Libraries) to support its different operations, OS X runs on a system that is similar to UNIX programs such as Linux. Even though the Mac OS X is still vulnerable to viruses and attacks, it is less likely to get a virus than Windows.
This is due to the fact that the OS X is built around a Linux-type system that is less prone to infection. An easily spotted difference between the two operating systems would be the task bar area. In windows, a task bar with a start button is present, and with Windows 7 some applications are pinned to the taskbar.
In the MAC OS X, the task bar like device is called the dock. To launch an application, you just have to click the icon and the program will start. FAT does not have the security needed that the NTFS system has. Using FAT for confidential items is compromising to their security. Times when you should use the FAT system include when you are using the old operating systems of Windows 95, Windows 98, and Windows Millennium. Common Tasks Let's look at common tasks needed to use to organize and backup files. Creating a folder To create a new folder, first click on either My documents or My pictures, depending on where you want the folder to be located. Look for the button on the side that reads "Make a new folder" After clicking this, a new folder will appear, which is ready to be renamed. Let's name this folder "Chemistry" Now we have a new folder that is ready for files to be put into it. Just type in "Chemistry" since it is highlighted in blue. If you wanted to change the name later you could just click on "Rename folder" and rename it then. Creating and Saving a new file To create a new file, you must open an application that can create a new file, such as a word processor, spreadsheet software, or presentation software.
For this example I will be using Microsoft Word. First you can click on the Microsoft button and choose "New." From this screen you can select what type of document you want to open. There are many templates available, such as calendars, business cards, and blog posts.
Let's open a blank document; select blank document and click "create." This creates a blank document for you to edit as you wish. Now let's save it so we can come back to it. Click on the Microsoft Button and roll your cursor over "Save As."
Now you can select how you want to save your document. Select "Word Document" to save it in the easiest format. When you click what document type you want, a dialogue box pops up.
From here you can choose where you want the file to be located and the name of the file. I named this file "Chemistry Homework." Now if you go to My Documents, you can see that the file is saved. You can double click this icon to bring up the file in Microsoft Word. Deleting and Copying A File To copy a file, first go to the folder where its icon is located. Then click once on the icon. Then look at the File and Folder tasks column on the left side of the page. To copy this file, click on "Copy this file" This will bring up the "Copy Items" dialogue box. You select where you want to copy the file to on this screen. This produces a copy of the file. Now you have a copy of your file! Deleting a file To delete a file, click on the document once, and look at the "File and Folder Tasks" column on the left. To delete the file, just click on "Delete this file." You will be asked to confirm the deletion, and if you are sure, select "yes." Now you have deleted a file. How to Back Up Files Let's look at how to backup files with Windows XP. To backup files, you must have the backup utility installed on your computer. To backup files, you must be an administrator or be a part of the administrator group. To start the backup, pull up Run and type in "ntbackup.exe" Then click on "Advanced Mode." Click on the "Backup" tab. On the Job menu, click "New" From here you can select the drives you want to back up. If you just want to backup specific folders or files, you can select those also. Then select the "System State" checkbox that is found under "My computer" that is located in the navigation pane. To decide where the backup files will go, you should check to see if the "Backup destination" list is available to select the location. Start the Backup To start, click "Start Backup." This opens the "Backup Job Information" dialogue box. Here you should look under "If the media already contains backups." You can do two things:
Select "Append this backup to media," which will keep this backup separate from any previous backups. Keep in mind that doing this many times will cause the file to grow in size each time.
Select "Replace the data on the media with this backup," which will overwrite old backups with this backup. This will help save hard disk space. After that, click on Advanced. Then check the "Verify data after backup" check box. Also select what type of backup you want in the "Backup Type" box.
You can choose from the following types:
Normal
Copy
Incremental
Differential
Daily Then you can click OK and Start Backup.
When it finished you may close the window, and your files will be backed up. System Utilities System utilities are the tools that a computer has to help it maintain the performance of the computer. Some common utilities are the disk defragmenter, anti-virus, backup, and disk partitions. These help to maintain system performance by doing their own part for the computer. For example, the disk defragmenter helps to keep the files that are spread across several disks in one disk to increase efficiency. Anti-virus utilities help to keep the computer free of viruses and tracking cookies. Disk compression utilities can compress the files on a disk to create more space, which helps to increase efficiency. A well known utility is the screensaver utility, which displays a selected image or animation while the computer is not in use. Network utilities can help you look at network connectivity and network settings.
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