**Engineering**

Design

Design

**Andrew Overholt, PhD.**

**What is it?**

Important!

Engineering is not a stand-alone subject, but rather a cross-cutting practice which is applied to numerous subjects

The engineering design cycle is an iterative method for solving problems

Define

the

Problem

Generate Solutions

Optimize

**Applications**

"Traditional" Examples

Other

Examples

Software

Engineering

Cons

Mathematical

Requires Language

Lacks Intuition

Intimidating

Pros

Mathematical

Cheap

Forgiving

Subject Independent

Software Engineering continues to grow as a field as our need for software increases.

Computer literacy has become a necessity. (See HS-ETS1-4 )

Any scientist going to graduate school will experience (likely required) programming of some kind.

We can't avoid it, so we need to make it accessible and enjoyable.

Engineering Code

Define

"Defining and delimiting engineering problems involves stating the problem to be solved as clearly as possible in terms of criteria for success, and constraints or limits."

With scientific computing, this typically means a mathematical scientific model.

What constraints must be considered in the case of software?

Generate Solutions

"Designing solutions to engineering problems begins with generating a number of different possible solutions, then evaluating potential solutions to see which ones best meet the criteria and constraints of the problem."

Each code is unique, though may provide advantages over one another.

Finding many solutions for comparison is important!

Optimize

"Optimizing the design solution involves a process in which solutions are systematically tested and refined and the final design is improved by trading off less important features for those that are more important."

Testing has never been easier:

Just click run.

Coding greatly accentuates the iterative process in a forgiving environment.

Running partial code is also very helpful, even though you know it will not work

Scientific Applications

Monte Carlo Simulations

Dynamics Equations

Predator/Prey Relationships

Too many to name...

Science and Engineering Practices

Asking questions and defining problems

Developing and using models

Planning and carrying out investigations

Analyzing and interpreting data

Using mathematics, information and computer technology, and computational thinking

Constructing explanations and designing solutions

Engaging in argument from evidence

Obtaining, evaluating and communicating information.

Coding in the Classroom

Numerous languages are used in the classroom, each with individual strengths and weaknesses:

Processing

Java

C++

InsightMaker

Scratch, Blockly, learn.code.org, App Inventor, etc.

Even the basics allow students to use the engineering design cycle and science and engineering practices

As an example, we will solve a "simple" maze using Blockly.

**Conclusion**

NGSS represent a commitment to integrate

engineering design into the structure of science education by raising engineering design to the same level as scientific inquiry when teaching science disciplines at all levels, from kindergarten to grade 12.

We use the term “engineering” in a very broad sense to mean any engagement in a systematic practice of design to achieve solutions to particular human problems.

What NGSS Says

Use a computer simulation to model the impact of proposed solutions to a complex real-world problem with numerous criteria and constraints on interactions within and between systems relevant to the problem.

Croscutting Concepts

Patterns

Cause and Effect

Scale, Proportion, and Quantity

Systems and System Models

Energy and Matter in Systems

Structure and Function

Stability and Change of Systems

Science and Engineering Practices

Asking questions and defining problems

Developing and using models

Planning and carrying out investigations

Analyzing and interpreting data

Using mathematics, information and computer technology, and computational thinking

Constructing explanations and designing solutions

Engaging in argument from evidence

Obtaining, evaluating and communicating information.

Appendix I (in your binder) contains a list of performance expectations that incorporate engineering

Can you use this?

Physical Science

MS-PS1: Undertake a design project to construct, test, and modify a device that either releases or absorbs thermal energy by chemical processes.

MS-PS3: Apply scientific principles to design, construct, and test a device that either minimizes or maximizes thermal energy transfer.

HS-PS1: Refine the design of a chemical system by specifying a change in conditions that would produce increased amounts of products at equilibrium.

HS-PS2: Apply scientific and engineering ideas to design, evaluate, and refine a device that minimizes the force on a macroscopic object during a collision.

HS-PS3: Design, build, and refine a device that works within given constraints to convert one form of energy into another form of energy.

Life Science

MS-LS2: Evaluate competing design solutions for maintaining biodiversity and ecosystem services.

HS-LS2: Design, evaluate, and refine a solution for reducing the impacts of human activities on the environment and biodiversity.

HS-LS4: Create or revise a simulation to test a solution to mitigate adverse impacts of human activity on biodiversity.

Earth and Space Science

HS-ESS3: Evaluate competing design solutions for developing, managing, and utilizing energy and mineral resources based on cost-benefit ratios.

MS Engineering

MS-ETS1-1: Define the criteria and constraints of a design problem with sufficient precision to ensure a successful solution, taking into account relevant scientific principles and potential impacts on people and the natural environment that may limit possible solutions.

MS-ETS1-2: Evaluate competing design solutions using a systematic process to determine how well they meet the criteria and constraints of the problem.

MS-ETS1-3: Analyze data from tests to determine similarities and differences among several design solutions to identify the best characteristics of each that can be combined into a new solution to better meet the criteria for success.

MS-ETS1-4: Develop a model to generate data for iterative testing and modification of a proposed object, tool, or process such that an optimal design can be achieved.

HS Engineering

HS-ETS1-1: Analyze a major global challenge to specify qualitative and quantitative criteria and constraints for solutions that account for societal needs and wants.

HS-ETS1-2: Design a solution to a complex real-world problem by breaking it down into smaller, more manageable problems that can be solved through engineering.

HS-ETS1-3: Evaluate a solution to a complex real-world problem based on prioritized criteria and trade-offs that account for a range of constraints, including cost, safety, reliability, and aesthetics as well as possible social, cultural, and environmental impacts.

HS-ETS1-4: Use a computer simulation to model the impact of proposed solutions to a complex real-world problem with numerous criteria and constraints on interactions within and between systems relevant to the problem.

Other Cross-overs

For engineering design to be "raised to the level of scientific inquiry", we have to try to include it in as many classes as possible.

What possible ways could computer simulation help accomplish this goal?

Monte Carlo Generation of Pi

Trajectories of Baseballs with Air Resistance

Predator/Prey Modeling

Yield of Chemical Equations

Others?

Writing Prompt

What solutions are best optimized for leading our avatar through the maze? Consider cost, efficiency, and other constraints.

https://blockly-demo.appspot.com/static/apps/maze/index.html

https://blockly-demo.appspot.com/static/apps/code/index.html?lang=en#wkvkt2

https://blockly-demo.appspot.com/static/apps/turtle/index.html?lang=en#vo5uun

https://blockly-demo.appspot.com/static/apps/code/index.html?lang=en#9fh3vw

http://insightmaker.com/insight/3230