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History Chapter 4 Reasons for Confederation (8)

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Anika Chang

on 26 February 2013

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Transcript of History Chapter 4 Reasons for Confederation (8)

Chapter 4:
1860 - 1866 Confederation Reasons for Confederation Reason One (1) During the 1860s, the people from the colonies of British North America did not think of themselves as one nation. However their economic prosperity from the free trade with the U.S was ending, so they wondered if they became one nation that it would allow them to build transportation links and regain their prosperity. They wanted a country that would remain loyal to Britain. During the 1850s and early 1860s, there were changes that affected the colonies of BNA. These changes occurred in BNA, however some of these changes occurred in Great Britain and the US and by 1867, these changes led to Confederation. Political Deadlock led to the Great Coalition in the United Province of Canada. In 1867, the BNA colonies in the United Provinces of Canada joined together as four provinces which are Ontario, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Quebec. Each province had power but turned some of their power to a more powerful central government which is located in Ottawa. There were six main reasons why the people of the 1860s wanted Confederation. The six main reasons will be explained in the next few slides. Reason Two (2) A railway linking the colonies was needed to increase trade and to move troops. Reason Three (3) Cancellation of the Reciprocity Treaty by the United States in 1865 ended free trade between BNA and the US. By 1860, each of the provinces in the United Province of Canada had its own railway, however there was no railway joining them together. The reasons the colonies were separated was because of the mountains, and also during winter, the rivers will freeze, stopping water transportation (ships) between the colonies.

People wanted an intercolonial railway because it would seem like a shorter distance between colonies, increase trade, and speed up mail delivery. During this time, financial trouble developed. This problem led to a stop of railway building. From then on, people began to dream of a new country united by a railway Reciprocity Treaty: Allowed the BNA colonies to trade in raw materials and agricultural products with the United States without tariffs (tax) being charged on on these goods. From 1854 to 1865, there was free trade between the BNA colonies and the US under the Reciprocity Treaty. However, in 1865, the United States ended the Reciprocity Treaty. After, the people in the colonies of BNA thought about uniting together so that they could trade among themselves without tariffs (tax) hoping that this would increase their economic prosperity. Reason Four (4) There was a threat of American expansion into British North America. Reason Five (5) Great Britain wanted her colonies to be more self sufficient Reasons Six (6) Some people (especially in Canada West) wanted to expand settlement into Rupert's Land and the North West Territories. In Canada West, good arable farmland was depleting. So they wanted to settle more to the west (present day- Manitoba, Alberta, and Saskatchewan). But during that time, Americans were also thinking of settling into these western lands. So the colonies of BNA thought that if they could join together and annex the western lands, they could settle there before the Americans. THE END BY: Sumin Chang
Catharina Kim Six Reasons for
Confederation Canada East and Canada West were part of the United Province of Canada and they had the same number of seats in the legislative assembly, which meant that they had an equal amount of power. So, disagreements were common between both sides. Then, they decided to join in coalition but, the coalition government had a hard time getting a majority to pass legislation. The politicians involved in the Great Coalition wanted federal union with the Atlantic colonies to have more power. This led to several changes in government. Political Deadlock: when government decisions cannot be made because opposing sides have equal amount of power. Coalition: a temporary joining between two or more political parties. People from the B.N.A colonies were concerned about the U.S taking over. In America, the Northern and Southern states were at war. During the war, the Southern states used Canadian territory as a base for their troops so then the Northern states accused the British government of helping them with the conflict. This made people from the B.N.A colonies afraid that the Americans will take over their Western lands and unluckily their fears became reality. After the war, Americans kept on believing in the Manifest Destiny. In the middle of the 1860s, Great Britain's attitude toward her colonies in North America began to change. She wanted the colonies to be more self-sufficient and re-thought if they were actually a benefit, however some thought they were a benefit and some thought that they were not. What We Learned In this chapter we have learned about how the colonies/provinces came to be the 6 reasons for confederation
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