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Nigel is 19 years old. He started at a local University six
Transcript of Nigel is 19 years old. He started at a local University six
Diagnostic signs and symptoms
Tests and screening
1. complete blood count (CBC)
2. MRI imaging and CT scan
** ventricular enlargement, decreased brain size and brain asymmetry)
1st: Dopamine hypothesis:
Dopamine hyperactivity in the mesolimbic, mesocortical pathway.
(Antiparkinson's agents causes psychosis symptoms and D2 blockers showed improved symptoms)
2nd: Serotonin hypothesis (5-HT):
increased levels of serotonin neurotransmitters.
(schizophrenic patients have high levels of 5-HT and that correlates to the ventricular size enlargement)
3rd: Glutamate hypothesis:
decreased levels and activity of Glutamate.
(NMDA receptor antagonists causes psychosis symptoms)
1. Alleviation of symptoms.
2. Avoidance of side effects.
3. Improvement of psychological function and productivity.
4. Patient compliance
Nigel is 19 years old. He started at a local University six months ago to do a course on Computer Science, but failed to attend lectures after the first few weeks. He began to suffer from periods where he would not get up in the morning, and didn't seem to care whether he went to University or not, and was unable to concentrate on any of his work. He became more and more withdrawn, and stopped going out with his friends. He neglected his personal hygiene, which was unusual for him as he had previously been careful about his appearance. He described strangers following him in the street and, one day after shouting that there were people installing hidden cameras in his bedroom to spy on him, he stormed out of the house. When he did not return that night, his mother and father went out to search for him and found him wandering the streets. With much persuasion they managed to get him to return home and next morning they contacted their doctor.
1. know the diagnostic signs of the disease and how to confirm the diagnosis.
2. Understand precisely the pathophysiology of the disease.
3. understand the treatment plan and all related treatment problems.
4. Explore the medications side effects, contraindications and drug interactions.
decreased speech fluency
**To diagnose schizophrenia at least 2 of theses symptoms should be persistent for 1 month.
Recently in 2o11, at the American psychiatric association meeting, prof. Sabine Bahn announced the invention of Veripsych., the first blood based diagnostic test to confirm the presence of schizophrenia.
It is not a genetic test but an automated test that uses single serum sample to detect 51 protein biomarkers.
Long acting "Depot"
Typical: DA receptors
Movement side effects
Tardive diskenisia (IRREVERSIBLE)
nigrostriatal pathway--> EPS
pituitary gland--> Hyperprolactinemia--> galactorrea and gyncomestia
Muscarinic --> constipation, dry eyes.
alpha--> postural hypotension
Obesity related problems
Thank You =)