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When Innovations Meet Institutions

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Dan Lin

on 20 December 2014

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Transcript of When Innovations Meet Institutions

When Innovations Meet Institutions
Introduction
Edison's Innovations
Advantages and Limitations of Conceptual ideas
Summary and Conclusion
BY: Abhishek Patil, Dan Lin, Nishendri Wariyapola, Othonas Othon, Ta Quoc Anh
Edison and The Design of the Electric Light
Introduction
Key Concepts and its Significance
Case study
Edison and Electric System
Phonograph
TiVo
Prodigy
Advantages and Limitations of
Key Concepts
Applications of the Key Concepts
Summary and Conclusion
Question and Answer
Discussion
Agenda
Key Concepts
Schema
"Schema is a knowledge structure that represents objects or events and provides default assumptions about their characteristics, relationships, and entailments under conditions of incomplete information" - DiMagio
Significance:
> Helps us to see
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Institutions
An Institution is any persistent structure or mechanism of social order governing the behavior of a set of individuals within a given community.
Ex:
Significance:

> Enables order of thought, expectations and action by imposing form and consistency in human activities.
> Both constrain and enable behavior.
Scripts
"Script is a sequence of expected behaviors that direct individual action and understanding in highly particularized situations" - Barley and DiMagio

Ex:
Script of driving a car.
Significance:
> Localized form of Schemas
> Enables us to act
Robust Design
An innovation's design is robust when its arrangement of concrete details cues schemas and scripts that are immediately effective in the short term, by invoking preexisting understandings, but that do not constrain us to only those existing understanding and actions, instead allowing us to discover new ways to interact with the new ideas as our understandings evolve.
Skeumorphs
Skeuomorphs are deliberately employed in a design to make the new look comfortably old and familiar.
Significance:
Skeumorphs are those elements of design that serve no functional purpose but are essential to the public's understanding of relationships between innovations and the objects they replace.
Why?
Let us make the concept more clearer
Schema and Scripts may vary form person to person.
For Most People Presentation is...
Presentation Scenario 2
Significance:
> Product or process is insensitive to variation.
Key Ideas in the paper..
Introducing change into stable social systems is always risky. Therefore, entrepreneurs have to balance between novelty and existing understandings.
History analysis is fundamental for entrepreneurs to help them identify how innovations displace institutions.
Schemas and Scripts constitute a language interpreting the established environments.
Robust design is an important mean to mediate between innovation and institutions.
Entrepreneurship is not a spontaneous idea or event. It is an ongoing process.
Connection with the Course theories
Thomas Edison’s light bulb
1882, Edison introduced his electric light bulb
Dominated by the gas companies

Edison's Solutions
Robust design: design his electricity to be indistinguishable from existing gas system

Phonograph
First invented by Edison in 1877, with a list of 10 possible uses
Only used to produce music 20 years later

This paper demonstrates the interdependence of innovations and institutions.

Describes how the key concepts are applied to some modern technologies.

Role of Design in mediating between Innovations and Institutions.

Highlights the value of robust design Strategies.

For Discussion...
The End
Institution
Advantage
Enables thought, expectation and behavior in specific environment.


Limitation
Restricts the diffusion of innovations.
Schema and Script
Advantages
Schemas helps to understand and see incomplete information.
Scripts helps to act in different environment based on known schemas.
Limitations

May lead to confusion.

Skeumorph
Advantages
Easy adoption

Reduced shifting cost.
Limitations
Limits creativity and functionality.

In Digital Technology - Wastes screen space and time.
Robust Design
Advantages
Good quality.

More appeal to the customer and increased customer satisfaction.

Limitations
Application of Key Concepts
Online Shopping
Time-consuming.

High costs.
Schema
Script & Skeumorph
Successful Innovation

Functional
Economic
Makes shopping more convenient

Saves time
Easy access to products
Reduces Costs :
Inventory costs.
Transportation charges
TiVo
Initial vision
Fundamentally changed the way viewers, networks and advertisers relate to each other



Reality
Prodigy
Failure
From the government
From his own investors
From the scientists
From the public
From gas companies
Resistance to the new innovation
Adoptions
Increasing Returns to Adoption (IRA)
: The more something gets adopted, the higher value for the potential adopters.



Interpretative Flexibility (IF)
: Extent to which the adopters share similar information about a specific innovation.

Path Dependency

Events that occurred in the past have a persistent effect on what is possible in the future. Some paths become dominant and it becomes increasingly difficult to jump to another path.
Lock - In
Prodigy-Online Service
November 1989
$600 Million
TiVo- Digital Video Recorder
1999
Program
Record
Replay
Innovations
Presentation Scenario 1
Significance of the paper
Lessons learned

Robust Design - Embed in existing social system.
Skeumorph - For public acceptance.
Excercise 2
Identify the Schemas, Scripts, Robustness and Skeumorphs in the below mentioned products.
3D Printer
Humanoid Robots
Google Glasses
E- Cigarettes
Exercise 1
Excercise 3
Assume that there is a new innovation in the Plug and Socket system.
Discuss how the new design of the plug can be diffused in the society using the key concepts.
Big and Heavy
Light and small
One possible solution
Existing Design
New Design
Write down the first script that comes in your mind in the schema of a first date.
Going to a Restaurant
Buying gifts
Buying flowers
First Kiss
Watch a movie
Free dinner (For ladies) Etc..
Time for the Discussion
Some Possible Scripts...
This Exercise was to highlight the concept that scripts are different for people.
Pearl Street Station
Electric Bulb in a gas lampshade
Electric meter based on gas meter
Complexity
Existing Institutions
Distinguished
Undistinguished
Case discussion
Schemas
Scripts
In gaming
Full transcript