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When Innovations Meet Institutions
Transcript of When Innovations Meet Institutions
Advantages and Limitations of Conceptual ideas
Summary and Conclusion
BY: Abhishek Patil, Dan Lin, Nishendri Wariyapola, Othonas Othon, Ta Quoc Anh
Edison and The Design of the Electric Light
Key Concepts and its Significance
Edison and Electric System
Advantages and Limitations of
Applications of the Key Concepts
Summary and Conclusion
Question and Answer
"Schema is a knowledge structure that represents objects or events and provides default assumptions about their characteristics, relationships, and entailments under conditions of incomplete information" - DiMagio
> Helps us to see
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An Institution is any persistent structure or mechanism of social order governing the behavior of a set of individuals within a given community.
> Enables order of thought, expectations and action by imposing form and consistency in human activities.
> Both constrain and enable behavior.
"Script is a sequence of expected behaviors that direct individual action and understanding in highly particularized situations" - Barley and DiMagio
Script of driving a car.
> Localized form of Schemas
> Enables us to act
An innovation's design is robust when its arrangement of concrete details cues schemas and scripts that are immediately effective in the short term, by invoking preexisting understandings, but that do not constrain us to only those existing understanding and actions, instead allowing us to discover new ways to interact with the new ideas as our understandings evolve.
Skeuomorphs are deliberately employed in a design to make the new look comfortably old and familiar.
Skeumorphs are those elements of design that serve no functional purpose but are essential to the public's understanding of relationships between innovations and the objects they replace.
Let us make the concept more clearer
Schema and Scripts may vary form person to person.
For Most People Presentation is...
Presentation Scenario 2
> Product or process is insensitive to variation.
Key Ideas in the paper..
Introducing change into stable social systems is always risky. Therefore, entrepreneurs have to balance between novelty and existing understandings.
History analysis is fundamental for entrepreneurs to help them identify how innovations displace institutions.
Schemas and Scripts constitute a language interpreting the established environments.
Robust design is an important mean to mediate between innovation and institutions.
Entrepreneurship is not a spontaneous idea or event. It is an ongoing process.
Connection with the Course theories
Thomas Edison’s light bulb
1882, Edison introduced his electric light bulb
Dominated by the gas companies
Robust design: design his electricity to be indistinguishable from existing gas system
First invented by Edison in 1877, with a list of 10 possible uses
Only used to produce music 20 years later
This paper demonstrates the interdependence of innovations and institutions.
Describes how the key concepts are applied to some modern technologies.
Role of Design in mediating between Innovations and Institutions.
Highlights the value of robust design Strategies.
Enables thought, expectation and behavior in specific environment.
Restricts the diffusion of innovations.
Schema and Script
Schemas helps to understand and see incomplete information.
Scripts helps to act in different environment based on known schemas.
May lead to confusion.
Reduced shifting cost.
Limits creativity and functionality.
In Digital Technology - Wastes screen space and time.
More appeal to the customer and increased customer satisfaction.
Application of Key Concepts
Script & Skeumorph
Makes shopping more convenient
Easy access to products
Reduces Costs :
Fundamentally changed the way viewers, networks and advertisers relate to each other
From the government
From his own investors
From the scientists
From the public
From gas companies
Resistance to the new innovation
Increasing Returns to Adoption (IRA)
: The more something gets adopted, the higher value for the potential adopters.
Interpretative Flexibility (IF)
: Extent to which the adopters share similar information about a specific innovation.
Events that occurred in the past have a persistent effect on what is possible in the future. Some paths become dominant and it becomes increasingly difficult to jump to another path.
Lock - In
TiVo- Digital Video Recorder
Presentation Scenario 1
Significance of the paper
Robust Design - Embed in existing social system.
Skeumorph - For public acceptance.
Identify the Schemas, Scripts, Robustness and Skeumorphs in the below mentioned products.
Assume that there is a new innovation in the Plug and Socket system.
Discuss how the new design of the plug can be diffused in the society using the key concepts.
Big and Heavy
Light and small
One possible solution
Write down the first script that comes in your mind in the schema of a first date.
Going to a Restaurant
Watch a movie
Free dinner (For ladies) Etc..
Time for the Discussion
Some Possible Scripts...
This Exercise was to highlight the concept that scripts are different for people.
Pearl Street Station
Electric Bulb in a gas lampshade
Electric meter based on gas meter