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Lecture on teaching vocabulary
Transcript of Lecture on teaching vocabulary
Principles for teaching vocabulary Principles of teaching vocabulary
Skills to be built
Receptive and productive vocabulary
System of exercises to teach vocabulary From the very beginning the significance of the expressions that are practised should be made use of. The very first phonetic examples should be characteristic words and phrases.
Bloomfield,1945 Principles of teaching vocabulary The beginning should be made with expressions concretely intelligible: formulas of greeting, short sentences about objects in the classroom, and actions that can be performed while naming them. As the work goes on to connected narrative and descriptive texts, this method must be continued. The texts, must at first be confined to very simple discourse about concretely illustrable matters. Pictures are here of great use. Principles of teaching vocabulary Teacher is the facilitator-coach and organizer of instructional activities. Here there is the need for patience and support of learners who, as they are engaged in developing their L2 pronunciation skills, may go through a period of deteriorating performance as they give up old ways and have not yet become fluent with new ways.
Principles of teaching vocabulary Special speech-activity experiences suited to the communication styles and needs of the learners’ real-life situations. Principles of teaching vocabulary The teacher should find ways to help students work on all four kinds of vocabulary skills: productive, receptive, sociocultural and linguistic Principles of teaching vocabulary A system of activities should be applied to teaching vocabulary: from simple to complex Principles of teaching vocabulary Each has created his or her own personal pattern of spoken English, which is unlike that of anyone else and the product of influences from both the LI and the L2, the student's personal learning and communicability strategies, as well as the impact of input and instruction. Principles of teaching vocabulary Problem solving task 2: Vocabulary skills Productive Sociocultural Linguistic Receptive Vocabulary skills Complete the diagram
showing the four vocabulary skills:
List productive vocabulary skills Problem solving task 3: To choose words and phrases in accord with the communicative intention
To follow the rules of words combinability
To choose the appropriate word in the synonymic/antonymic line
To change the words with appropriate equivalents
To adjust to the individual style of the speaker Key 3: Skills to be built: Productive List receptive vocabulary skills Problem solving task 4: To relate the sound/visual image of the word to its meaning
To recognize and understand the words in speech or written text
To disclose the meaning of the word through the context
To differentiate homonyms
To use the mechanism of receptive combinability Key 4: Skills to be built: Receptive List sociocultural vocabulary skills Problem solving task 5: To know and understand idioms and phraseological units
To know the words denoting everyday objects and notions of the target culture (currency units, time etc.)
To know and be able to use speech etiquette formula appropriately to the communicative situation Key 5: Skills to be built: Sociocultural List linguistic vocabulary skills Problem solving task 6: To know the rules of word-building and combinability
To know the auxiliary and functional words
To know the etymology of separate words
To be aware of the notions that are expressed differently in different languages Key 6: Skills to be built: Linguistic 3. Receptive and productive vocabulary Define the statistic principles of vocabulary choice.
What are they?
What are they used for?
Why are they important? Problem solving task 7: Define the quantitative characteristics of the vocabulary and distinguish the most frequently used items
Principle of the range of use (number of sources using each word) Key 7: Statistic principles List the linguistic principles of vocabulary choice. Why are they important? Problem solving task 8: Combinability
Stylistic freedom of use
Frequency of usage Key 8: Linguistic principles List the methodical principles for vocabulary choice. Problem solving task 9: Orientation to the type of school and aims of teaching
Semantic and notional value Key 9: Methodical principles Semantization of vocabulary: demonstration, definition, translation
Primary consolidation: recognition, drill
Speech preparatory exercises: differentiation, identification, imitation, contextualization
Communicative usage: dialogues, games, role plays System of exercises What do you think is the system of exercises to teach vocabulary?
What are the components of the system?
What is the principle the system is built on?
Why is it necessary to work with vocabulary systematically? Problem solving task 10: http://www.k12reader.com/effective-strategies-for-teaching-vocabulary/ Effective Strategies for Teaching Vocabulary Pre-teaching Vocabulary Words
Repeated Exposure to Words
Restructuring Reading Materials Incidental Learning
Context Skills Pre-teaching Vocabulary Words The more times we are exposed to a word, the stronger our understanding becomes.
Providing multiple opportunities to use a new word in its written and spoken form helps children solidify their understanding of it. Repeated Exposure to Words For each of these new vocabulary words the child (with the support of the adult) creates a graphic organizer for the word. At the top or center of the organizer is the vocabulary word. Branching off of the word are three categories: classification (what class or group does the word belong to), qualities (what is the word like) and examples. Word Maps Focus on teaching children the most commonly occurring roots, prefixes and suffixes. As each is taught examples of its use in common word should be shared and examined. The reader should see how the root helps her understand the word’s definition. Root Analysis Restructure the materials in several different ways to help readers comprehend them more easily.
A portion of the difficult words can be replaced with “easier” synonyms to help the reader understand the overall text. Vocabulary footnotes can be added for particularly challenging words so that the reader can easily “look up” the word while still reading the text. Restructuring Reading Materials Unfamiliar words are introduced prior to reading.
This “word clue” or keyword might be a part of the definition, an illustrative example or an image that the reader connects to the word to make it easier to remember the meaning when reading it in context.
The idea behind the keyword method is to create an easy cognitive link to the word’s meaning that the reader can access efficiently during a reading experience. Keyword Method Incidental vocabulary learning occurs all of the time when we read. Based on the way a word is used in a text we are able to determine its meaning. While you may not know what a specific word means, many times you can determine its meaning based on what the rest of the sentence focuses on. Incidental Learning Context skills are the strategies that a reader uses for incidental vocabulary learning. Texts are full of “clues” about the meanings of words. Other words in a sentence or paragraph, captions, illustrations and titles provide readers with information about the text that they can use to determine the meanings of unfamiliar words. Context Skills One forgets words as one forgets names. One's vocabulary needs constant fertilizing or it will die.
http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/keywords/vocabulary.html#zCFHFbeliUvjf2aD.99 References Gower, Roger, Phillips, Diane and Walters, Steve. Teaching Practice. A handbook for teachers in training. Macmillan, 2005. – 215 pages
Ollington Gerald F.Teachers & teaching : strategies, innovations and problem solving. Nova Science Publishers, New York, 2008
Thornbury Scott and Slade Diana. Conversation : from description to pedagogy Cambridge University press, 2007
Miller, Debbie. Teaching with intention : defining beliefs, aligning practice, taking action Stenhouse Publishers, 2008
Kostanai State Pedagogical Institute
30.10.2012 1. Integration of teaching vocabulary and pronunciation 2. Teach both form and function 3. An emphasis on speech awareness and self-monitoring. 4. A focus on meaningful practice 5. A focus on the development of the whole range of vocabulary skills 6. A focus on a systematic vocabulary teaching 7. A focus on the uniqueness of each ESL learner.