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indonesia water scarcity
Transcript of indonesia water scarcity
How bad is Indonesia water crisis?
Where is the water crisis in Indonesia the most serious?
What are some of the major factors contributing to the water crisis in Indonesia?
the use of desalinization technology. This system is described as filtering salty water through membranes and removing the salt through electro dialysis and reverse osmosis. This procedure has worked for about 130 nations in North Africa and the Middle East.
-- Although Indonesia enjoys 21 percent of the total freshwater available in the Asia-Pacific region, many of the country’s water security issues are tied to its rapid development, poor urban infrastructure, and stretched institutional capacity. Economic growth has not been accompanied by a corresponding expansion of infrastructure and institutional capacity. As a result, nearly one out of two Indonesians lacks access to safe water and more than 70 percent of the nation’s 220 million people rely on potentially contaminated sources
to develop and mandate more efficient household water heaters.
are to compose new multinational treaties to specify water sharing.
Governments play a central role in promoting water reuse and enforcing quality standards. Water recycling should be widely promoted not only to preserve water availability, but also as a measure to protect the environment. To give water a price could also accelerate the implementation of water recycling and water reuse schemes and technologies
the water footprint of Indonesian consumption was about 270 billion m3/yr in the period 1997-2001, which comes to 1317 m3/yr per person (Hoekstra and Chapagain, 2008). About 10% of this footprint lies outside Indonesia, which means that Indonesia still has a relatively high degree of water self-sufficiency.
Virtual water trade between the islands within Indonesia plays a key role in ensuring water security. The interprovincial virtual water flows are primarily caused by trade in rice. Java, the most water scarce island, has a net virtual water import and the most significant external water footprint. This large external water footprint is relieving the water scarcity on this island. Trade will remain necessary to supply food to the most densely populated areas where water scarcity is highest (Java).
There are two alternative routes to reduce the overall water footprint of Indonesia. On the one hand, it may be reduced by promoting wise crop trade between provinces – i.e. trade from places with high to places with low water efficiency. On the other hand, the water footprint can be reduced by improving water efficiency in those places that currently have relatively low efficiency, which equalises production efficiencies and thus reduces the need for imports and enhances the opportunities for exports. In any case, trade will remain necessary to supply food to the most densely populated areas where water scarcity is highest
closed loop system
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