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Commas, Semi-colons and Irregular Plurals

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Marie Fréchette

on 1 May 2015

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Transcript of Commas, Semi-colons and Irregular Plurals

How to use a comma, a semi-colon and the plural exceptions
Semi-colon
-Connect two independent sentences
Exceptions of plural
Comma
Ex: My mother believes everything she reads on the Internet. That makes her try weird things sometimes.
Rules
1
Add ‘es’ to words ending in ‘ch’,‘sh’, ‘s’, ‘ss’, ‘x’ or ‘z’ to make the plural.
wish → wishes
2
When the letter before a ‘y’ is a consonant, change the ‘y’ to an ‘i’ before adding an ‘es’. berry → berries
3
When the word end in 'f' or in 'fe', change the 'f' or the 'fe' into a 'v' before adding 'es'. leaf → leaves
4 When the letter before a ‘o’ is a consonant, add ‘es’to make the plural. tomato → tomatoes
5 Sometimes a word may completely change its form when a plural is made. person →people
6 Finally some are invariable. tuna → tuna
1. separate items in a series
2. separate 2 interchangeable adjectives
Oxford comma : They were waiting for my cousins, Susan and Lucy.
3.Set off:
- expressions
- name of the person you are addressing to
-other information starting by who or which
4. Separate the day of the month from the year
5. Separate the city from the state
Ex: Sam was a bright, clever man.
Not for : I went to an expensive summer resort.
Exercises
Ex: Pippin who is my best friend loves to sing.
Are there any mistakes in the following sentences ?
1. Mary, Naho, and I recently became vegetarians.
2. We met a girl from Bangkok, Thailand during our trip to the Bahamas.
3. There was cake, cookies and milk and ice cream.
4.The lead singer of her favorite band has an amazing voice, and plays many instruments.
5. The man knowing it was late hurried home.
6. The baby fell asleep, to the sound of his mother's soft, soothing, voice.
7. My friend, Cap, always brings an extra pudding cup for me.
8. Look at my new, hardcover notebook !
Other common mistakes
Charlie went to the store, because he needed a new laptop.
She plays piano very well, and knows a lot of songs by heart.
The dress, that she wore to her prom, was black and blue.
Exercise: Put the following words at the plural form
cross→
thief→
delay→
church→
deer→
pony→
key→
family→
half→
mango→
goose→
woman→
sheep→
bus→
piano→
volcano→
knife→
quiz→
Exercises
1. My new friend is a very good hockey player; and he is a very friendly person.
2. His scissors are new; they cut very well.
3. I want to visit Paris, France, London, England and Madrid, Spain.
Semi-colon
Connect sentences that already contain other punctuation.
Ex: Squirrels, especially those who can fly, are the coolest animals; I would like to have one as a pet.
-Separate items in a list when the elements of that list contain commas (locations, dates, descriptions)
-DON'T USE the semi-colon with conjunctions like but, and, or, no, for, so and yet. --> Commas

Ex: You have to invite Lynn, her older sister; Roxy, one of her closest friends and Charlie, her husband.
My mother believes everything she reads on the Internet; that makes her try weird things sometimes.
My son was vaccinated on March 23rd, 2006; on September 5th, 2007 and on March 2nd, 2012.
Ex: December 24th, 1973, is the day Stephenie Meyer was born.
Other Irregular Plurals
analysis -analyses
crisis -crises
oasis -oases
bacterium -bacteria
series -series
species -species
We are using the semi-colon too with the words in addition, however, otherwise and therefore.
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