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Kathryn Hobson

on 27 April 2013

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Transcript of Rhetoric

Rhetoric Aristotle,Burke, and Toulmin Burkean Rhetoric Toulmin's model for everyday argumentation Claim Support Warrant Why this is important to public speaking But what about all of these... Why this matters: Symbols The Available Means of Persuasion Ways to prove your arguments/claims Logos: Some Specifics Aristotelian Rhetoric Based on Three Kinds of Proof: Enthymeme (deduction) and Example (induction) Symbols are what set humans apart from other species because they are the ways that we communicate. Consider this example of deadly misuse of symbols: Language is a screen through which we see the world and it creates, shapes, and changes human beings and our realities. The claim is the point the arguer is trying to persuade people towards. Support answers, "How can you prove your point?" The unstated leap that connects the support with the claim. "Rhetoric may be defined as the
faculty of observing in any given
case the available means of persuasion." Logos is how you support or prove your persuasive claims. Ethos: The speakers credibility based on intelligence, character and goodwill. Pathos: The emotional proof or motivational appeals; vivid language, emotional language and numerous sensory details. Logos: The logical proof of appeals used to support a claim Logical reasoning or proof provided by the words
of the speech itself. "Persuasion is effected through the speech itself when we have proved a truth or apparent truth"(8). Deduction: Works from the general to the more specific. Think: Scientific Method Induction: Works from the specific to the more general.
Think: Participant-observation Both types of reasoning are based in relationship to other statements or claims. Syllogisms: Lay out all claims Famous Syllogism All humans are mortal (major premise-assumed) Socrates is human (minor premise-stated) Therefore, Socrates is mortal. (conclusion stated) Enthymemes are missing a premise or conclusion, often because it seems so obvious it does not need to be stated. Enthymemes Only she had the means, motive, and opportunity to kill him. (minor premise-stated) Example: Therefore, she is the killer. (conclusion-stated) What is missing? The major premise: The one with the means, motive, and opportunity to kill him is the killer. (unstated) Because this major claim is obvious, it is unstated, and thus, this is an enthymeme not a syllogism. Why it matters: You will never be able to prove an argument 100% Why? So you have to prove an argument to the best of your ability, using ethical and effective communication, sound reasoning and evidence. Every claim you make must have ample reasoning & support. "The use of words by human agents to form attitudes or induce actions in other human agents." "the use of language as a symbolic means of inducing cooperation in beings that by nature respond to symbols." "Humans are symbol using, symbol misusing animals" Burke Generally, for Burke, symbols refer to our use of language. So we see: We say or write: TREE TREE represents the image of the tree. How do we represent these with language? TREE or: Arbol-Spanish Baum-German شجرة Some languages, like Chinese have different words for different trees, or single trees and multiple trees. When Christopher Columbus got lost on his way to the West Indies, he happened upon the Carribean, South and Central American Land. Indigenous Groups:
Guanahatabeyes He met indigenous peoples: He labeled all of the indigenous people he met: Indios The legacy Columbus left from calling a group of diverse indigenous people Indios has been colonialism, genocide, racism, ethnocentrism, and stereotyping to the point of destruction. So for Halloween, or in the everyday if you think this is o.k.: Remember that this represents years of misusing symbols, stereotyping, and abusing a diverse group of people and their various cultures. This is called Stereotyping, or making assumptions about a group, based on a few traits or characteristics, and labeling it as one specific thing. Language tells a story in and of itself, so be aware of what the words you are using, and how they include or exclude people, and what reality they are helping to create. Language can help or hurt the level in which a a speaker can identify with an audience, or an audience with a speaker. Identification Identification is crucial for persuasion, according to Burke. The human experience is individual and thus, divisive. To persuade, a speaker must find ways to identify with the audience. Appeal to values, beliefs, and backgrounds. There are three basic types of claims: Fact: Claims which focus on empirically verified phenomena. Judgement: Claims about opinions and values. Policy: Claims advocating a course of action. Evidence: Statistics, facts, narratives, quotes, testimony, interviews etc. Can also be sound reasoning and logic. E.g. "It looks like rain. The barometer is falling." E.G. "Muffin is running a temperature. I'll bet she has an infection." Warrant: sign reasoning; a fever is a reliable sign of an infection Warrants can be based on:

Ethos: source credibility, authority

Logos: reason-giving, induction, deduction

Pathos: emotional or motivational appeals

Shared values: free speech, right to know, fairness, etc. note: these categories aren't mutually exclusive, there is considerable overlap among the three The Second Triad Qualifiers: States how sure the speaker is about their claim. No superlatives: always, only, never, every etc. Rebuttals: Acknowledges limits to what the speaker is saying, acknowledges multiple view points. Backing: Evidence for the warrant, to make it more believable. Pathos Logos Ethos
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