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Teaching students with different learning styles, cognitive

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Elzar Examon

on 16 June 2014

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Transcript of Teaching students with different learning styles, cognitive

Learning styles are diverse ways of learning, comprehending, and using information.
Each individual attains and processes information according to a particular learning style. Each learning style is defined by different characteristics. There are at least three types of factors that contributes to an individuals learning style.

Cognitive Factors
Affective Factors
Physiological Factors
Different Learning Styles
Cognitive Styles of Learning
Visual Learners
About half of the student population learns best by seeing information hence termed visual learners.
Learns better in lectures by watching them
Able to memorize and recall various information
Tends to remember things that are written down
Organize information using color codes
Use visual objects such as illustrations, graphs, pictures, charts and other visual aids.
Factors that contribute to learning styles
Cognitive Factors- Information Processing
Individuals have different ways of perceiving, organizing, retaining, and using information.

Affective Factors- Attitudes
Deals with the level of motivation and the intensity of that motivation to learn
It also includes attitudes, values and emotions
Factors that influence curiosity
The ability to tolerate and overcome frustration
The willingness to take risk and the preference to learn in groups or individually

Physiological Factors
Hunger, tiredness, light, sound, temperature
Ability to sit long periods of time, or the need to move around
Morning or afternoon learner
Ada Pagan
Francis Bohorques
Elzar Examon

Teaching students with different learning styles, cognitive styles, and forms of intelligence
There are three main cognitive learning styles


These students learn best by hearing. They can remember the details of conversations and lectures, and many have strong language skills.

Notices different aspects of speaking
Retains information through hearing and speaking
Auditory learners tend to benefit most from traditional teaching techniques, such as lecture-style forum
Auditory Learners
Kinesthetic Learners
Theses are "hand on" learners, they learn best by doing

Likes to use the hands-on approach to learn new material
Would rather demonstrate rather than explain
Great hand-eye coordination and excellent experimenters
They operate at high levels of energy and are good at sports, art, and drama
Forms Of Intelligence
Intelligence as defined by Howard Gardner is "The capacity to solve problems or to fashion products that are valued in one or more cultural settings."
Howard Gardner, a Harvard psychologist, developed the theory of multiple intelligence which was published in his 1983 book
Frames of Mind: The Theory Of Multiple Intelligences.

Gardner's eight intelligences are as follows:

Logical - Mathematical Intelligence
Linguistic Verbal Intelligence
Their strengths are words, language, and writing. Those who are strong in linguistic-verbal intelligence are able to use words well, both when writing and speaking. These individuals are typically very good at writing stories, memorizing information and reading.
They're also good at debating or giving persuasive speeches
Able to explain things well
Often uses humor when telling stories
Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence
Their strengths are physical movement and motor control.
They are also ........
Good at dancing and sports
Enjoy creating things with their hands
Excellent physical coordination
Tends to remember by doing, rather than hearing or seeing

Musical Intelligence
Interpersonal Intelligence
They are people smart and are good at understanding and interacting with others. These individuals are skilled at assessing the emotions, motivations,desires and intentions of those around them.

They are .........
Good at communicating verbally
Skilled nonverbal communicators
See situations from different perspective
Create positive relationships with others
Good at resolving conflict in groups
Naturalist Intelligence
Existential Intelligence
This is the ninth form of intelligence, and is more comprehensive and deals with the meaning of life.
It draws on several other forms of intelligence, so that the individual can combine multiple abilities and make them work together.
The strengths of this type of intelligence is their ability to analyze problems and mathematical operations
They have excellent problem solving skills
Enjoys thinking about abstract ideas
Likes conducting scientific experiments
And Good at solving complex computations
Potential Career Choices
Computer programmer
Potential Career Choices
Possible Career Choices
People who have strong musical intelligence are good at thinking in patterns, rhythms and sounds. They have a strong appreciation for music and are often good at musical composition and performance.

Enjoy singing and playing musical instruments
Recognizes musical patterns and tones easily
Good at remembering songs and melodies
Rich understanding of musical structure, rhythm and notes
Possible Career Choices
Music Teacher
Spatial Intelligence
They are good at visualizing things, and are often good with directions as well as maps, charts, videos and pictures.

They also .........

Enjoy reading and writing
Good at putting puzzles together
Good at interpreting pictures,
graphs and charts
Enjoy drawing, painting and the
visual arts
Recognize patterns easily
Possible Career Choices
They are good at being aware of their own emotional states, feelings and motivations. They tend to enjoy self-reflection and analysis,
including day-dreaming, exploring
relationships with others and assessing their personal strengths.

They are .......
Good at analyzing their strengths and weaknesses
Enjoys analyzing theories and ideas
Excellent self-awareness
Clearly understands the basis for their own motivations and feelings

Possible Career Choices
Different Cognitive Styles
Cognitive style or “thinking style” are defined as the information processing habits of an individual. Cognition describes a person's typical mode of perceiving situations, the way that person will problem solve, as well as their mode of thinking and remembering. It is the preferred way a person will process information.
A number of cognitive styles have been identified and studied over the years which psychologists have developed models for

Field independence vs. Field Dependence
An area where individuals show differences in their abilities to discriminate events or visual, auditory, or tactile cues from their surrounding environments is known as field-dependence/field-independence. A field-dependent person shows difficulty in finding a geometric shape that is "hidden" in a background with similar (but not identical) lines and shapes. The conflicting patterns will distract the person and it will make it difficult for him/her to identify the given figure. A person who is field-independent is capable of identifying the geometric shape, regardless of the background. This manner of interpretation, however, is not limited to visual cues. Many researchers are studying auditory and other sensory perception abilities that may vary from person to person.

When it comes to the classroom, Field-dependent learners often work well in teams as they tend to be better at interpersonal relationships, while Field-independent learners tend to rely less on the teacher or other learners for support.

One of the most common distinctions in the literature on cognitive style is between analytic and holistic styles. While Analytic thinking involves understanding a system by thinking about its parts and how they work together to produce larger-scale effects, the Holistic thinking involves understanding a system by sensing its large-scale patterns and reacting to them.
Analytic knowledge is the main type of knowledge required for schoolwork. However, it is also required outside of school, for example, a person putting a computer together, must understand how the components of the system function and work. Analytic thought predominates in schools not because it is better but because it can be taught and because it will be needed for several technical skills.
Holistic people often excel in social situations requiring sensitivity, intuition and tact. Their ability to get a general feeling about a situation may open their minds to subtle or complex situations.

Sensory Preference
A sensory modality is a system that interacts with the environment through one of the basic senses. The most important sensory modalities are visual, auditory, and kinesthetic. According to Dunn and Dunn (1979), about 20% to 30% of American students are auditory; about 40% are visual; the remaining 30% to 40% are either tactual/kinesthetic, visual/tactual, or some combinations of the above major senses.
Many studies have indicated that a visual style is beneficial for some tasks. For example, many children on the Autism Spectrum often benefit from this style, that’s way in many classrooms teachers often work with visual schedules.

Hemispheric Preferences
There is a significant body of research about hemispheric preferences. Researchers have conducted a number of studies from different perspectives, such as psychological, physiological, and neurological. According to Sonnier (1991), hemispheric preferences might be a major contributing factor to individual differences. That is, left-hemispheric students are strong in analytical thought processing; these students tend to process information logically and sequentially. On the other hand right-hemispheric students are visual processors; these students can process information non-linearly and holistically.
Kolb’s Learning Style Model
Kolb’s Learning Style Inventory is one of the dominant approaches to categorizing cognitive styles (Tennant, 1988). Kolb’s model has been found to be effective in some language teaching activities (Kolb, 1984). According to Kolb, the four basic learning modes are defined as active experimentation (AE), reflective observation (RO), concrete experience (CE), and abstract conceptualization (AC).
Description of Kolb’s learning styles with suggested instructional strategies for teaching each style
Ausburn, L. J., & Ausburn, F. B. (1978). Cognitive styles: Some information and implications for instructional design. Educational Communication and Technology, 26 (4), 337-354

Bennink, C. D. (1982), Individual differences in cognitive style, working memory, and semantic integration. Journal of Research in Personality, 16 (3), 267-280.

Cherry, K. (n.d.) Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences. Retrieved June 2, 2014, from Psychology.about.com/od/educationalpsychology/ss/multiple-intell.htm

Different Learning styles in Education. (2013, October 28). .Retrieved June 11, 2013 from http://www.Education.com/reference/article/ref_teaching_tips/

Sadker, D.M., & Zittleman, K.R. (2010). Teachers, Schools, and Society.: McGraw-Hill

Types of Learning Styles. (2012, March 12). Retrieved June 6, 2014, from htt://www.learningrx.com/types-of-learning-styles-faq.htm
Are more in tune with nature and are often interested in nurturing, exploring the environment and learning about other species.
Highly ware of even subtle changes to their environments
Interested in subjects such as botany, biology and zoology
Good at characterizing and cataloging information easily
May enjoy camping, gardening, hiking and exploring the outdoors
Doesn't enjoy learning unfamiliar topics that have no connection to nature
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