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Evolution and plasticity in an acidifying ocean
Transcript of Evolution and plasticity in an acidifying ocean
Focus on early life stage morphometric traits (e.g. size) -> relation to overall fitness not clear
Factorial crosses + replication = unwieldy experimental designs
NOT all is lost.
There IS reason to worry.
We HAVE some tools.
Natural selection experiments on clonal uni-cellular species
Evidence for de novo evolution, multiple genetic pathways
500+ generations - not an option for most metazoans
Evolutionary responses observed!
e.g., Lohbeck et al. (Nat Geosci 2012, Evolution 2013), Jin et al. (Evolution 2013)
Differential OA sensitivities between strains or populations
Hutchins et al. Nat Geosci 2013
Wild vs. disease resistant oyster strains
Baltic vs. Norwegian cod
Parker et al. Mar Biol 2011
3rd OAPI meeting 9-11 June 2015 Woods Hole
Frommel et al. Nat Clim Change 2012, Mar Biol 2012
heritable genetic variation with respect to OA sensitivity exists
Shifts in genotypic composition (evolution) due to OA - trade offs?
Estimating the evolutionary potential
h2 = additive genetic / total phenotypic variance
Sunday et al. PLOS One 2011
Kelly et al. GCB 2013
CO2 sensitivity known (survival)
Rear all crosses in a common replicated environment
Figure out who's who later
"Survival under high CO2 was more similar between genetically related vs. unrelated individuals"
h2 = 0.20
maternal effects insignificant
* first h2 estimate
of survival under
OA for a metazoan
Genomic & transcriptomic approaches
Varying expression levels of functional genetic groups -> indicate plastic response on the cellular level, heritable variation needs to be shown
How do pCO2 responsive loci relate to fitness?
Next-generation sequencing -> not only for model species
e.g., Todgham & Hofmann J Exp Biol 2009; Benner et al. Phil Trans R Soc 2013
e.g., Pespeni et al. PNAS 2013
Pespeni et al. PNAS 2013
7 days of selection
ubiquitous shifts in allele frequencies
little morphometric or survival differences
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in single genes related to known functional protein classes
Likely an adaptation to varying CO2 conditions along the Californian Coast
Acidification is only one
of many potential stressors
Evolutionary adaptation to other stressors may promote or constraint adaptation to acidification
e.g., food availability can modify CO2 sensitivity in bivalves, fish
What about copepods?
Species interaction will
modify selection pressure to OA
We only have a limited picture about the sensitivity of some stages, not whole life
-> fitness consequences
abrupt, extreme change
What selection differential?
h2 = 0.5
h2 = 0.12
h2 = 0.43
h2 = 0.14
h2 = 0.09
Transgenerational effects are truly ubiquitous in nature
Jablonka & Raz
Q Rev Biol
2009; Salinas et al.
Transgenerational acclimation to high CO2 has been shown in the laboratory
(Miller et al. Nat Clim Change 2012)
Green sea urchin larvae
(Dupont Mar Biol et al. 2013)
Sydney rock oyster larvae
(Parker et al. Mar Biol 2012)
But does it happen in the wild?
Adults collected from the field
Offspring reared in the lab
Parallel field monitoring
~400 vs 2,000 µatm CO2
Transgenerational acclimation is not just a laboratory phenomenon!
Its existence suggests that organisms need it. Perhaps to cope with seasonal CO2 variability?
Implication I: how useful are broodstocks?
Implication II: Does TGP prevent adaptation?
Temporal, palaeontological approaches
Genetic, molecular approaches