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02.10 Module Project

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Jonathan Martinez

on 24 April 2013

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Transcript of 02.10 Module Project

The Magna Carta These trade routes are on this map primarily because of the crusades. The wars reopened all of the pilgrimage routes, which boosted the trade and economy in Europe. Trade Routes during the late middle ages Development of Medieval Europe Development of Japan Introduction 2..10 Module Project Religion and Economy in Medieval Europe and Japan Social Hierarchy after Urbanization Religion did not have as much of an impact on daily life and the overall development of Japan as it did Europe. For example most of the wars were fought for wealth or power, not religion, but it did influence certain aspects. The people in Japan clung to their original Shinto religion when Buddhism was forced on them, but later they discovered Zen Buddhism; a practice that was more focused on a personal experience and enlightenment. This new kind of religion created an overall concentrated awareness in Japan, but also influenced culture and the arts, such as Noh theater, which was known for its precise and restricted movements. After the mongol invasions, Japan began to reject anything Chinese, which was odd because of how big an influence China had on Japan. After this, Japan was isolated, however during the second half of the Ashikaga period, Japan flourished. There was an increase of production of goods and trade with China. The japanese learned to make European style muskets when a portuguese ship arrived at one of their ports. This transformed Japanese warfare. Many people converted to Christianity to increase trade, but this was soon suppressed, and again Japan went into isolationism that lasted 200 years. There was however limited external trade, and the arts once again flourished. The government of Japan then became interested in land reclamation projects, and would limit taxes of people who supported it. This ended up creating semi-independent states, which led to the development of feudalism in Japan. Religion and Economics both play a huge part in the development of Medieval Europe and Japan. In this case, they come hand in hand because one usually influenced or triggered the other. These two things greatly influenced the growth of Europe and Japan because religion and tradition was very important to both places, and trade and economy was a huge part of success. In medieval Europe, religion and economics were especially intertwined. Religion was the main cause of war during this time, including the Crusades, which was started by Pope Urban the Second. These wars were primarily over Jerusalem, the holy Land, and lasted over 200 years. They brought more power to the church and opened the pilgrimage routes, increasing trade and the use of coin currency. This led to the urbanization of medieval Europe, which drastically changed the economy and would eventually lead to five centuries of Europe’s economic and cultural dominance. Before these wars, the church was extremely wealthy and had no separation from politics; in fact, the pope had more power than king. The church did not have to pay taxes and received 10 percent of Christians’ annual income from both the upper and lower class (there was no in between). The peasants and serfs would live on the nobles land grow crops and goods for them, and there was usually no way for a person in the lower class to move up in the social hierarchy. With the increase of trade however, merchants and guilds started becoming more popular. Guild towns, inns, taverns, and city markets were created. The idea of banks and loans were formed with the new coin currency, and the barter system was soon abandoned. All of these things contributed to a new hierarchy and the development of the middle class, which created new opportunities and advancements. This shaped modern Europe and paved the way for the commercial and industrial revolution. Feudalism in Europe Social Hierarchy before Urbanization The Feudal system in medieval Europe changed after the Crusades when trade become a more important part life at the time. Europe became more urbanized and focused on trade, causing many merchants to appear. This created a whole block in the social hierarchy; the middle class. Mostly made up of merchants and artisans, the middle class offered peasants many more opportunities and a higher chance of moving up on the pyramid. …Know that we, at the prompting of God and for the health of our soul and the souls of our ancestors and successors, for the glory of holy Church and the improvement of our realm, freely and out of our good will have given and granted to the archbishops, bishops, abbots, priors, earls, barons and all of our realm these liberties written below to hold in our realm of England in perpetuity.

Article 1: In the first place we grant to God and confirm by this our present charter for ourselves and our heirs in perpetuity that the English Church is to be free and to have all its rights fully and its liberties entirely. We furthermore grant and give to all the freemen of our realm for ourselves and our heirs in perpetuity the liberties written below to have and to hold to them and their heirs from us and our heirs in perpetuity.

…Article 29: No freeman is to be taken or imprisoned or disseised of his free tenement or of his liberties or free customs, or outlawed or exiled or in any way ruined, nor will we go against such a man or send against him save by lawful judgement of his peers or by the law of the land. To no-one will we sell or deny of delay right or justice. — Magna Carta, 1215 This is an excerpt from the magna carta, an official document the king signed giving specific rights to the people in Europe. The Magna Carta, similar to the bill of rights and the constitution, gave more power to the people and formally listed their rights. This introduced the first parliament, and could have been thought of the beginning of democracy. Feudalism in Japan Feudalism in Japan was similar to Europe's but there are a couple differences. The top three parts of the pyramid were basically the same, but the lower class was different. Japan put the status of peasants higher than merchants, because peasants and artisans were responsible for the production of their food and necessary goods, where as merchants just "moved" it. Topographical map and Trade of Japan The History of Japan by Louis G. Perez, Greenwood Press, 1998, page 42.

“Trade goods from China and Korea were silk, brocades, cotton, tea, books, copper coins, and porcelain. Japanese wares were swords, folding fans, sulfur, copper, and silver. Japanese priests on religious pilgrimages often went along on these journeys as well. Chinese and Korean artists, potters, and priests also made the journey to Japan. . . . Japanese merchants ranged far afield in Southeast Asia as well. Whole communities of Japanese merchants set up shop in the Philippines, Siam, Taiwan, and the other islands.”
— Louis G. Perez, The History of Japan,
Chapter 3 This excerpt explains about trade in Japan. It mentions China, Korea, South East Asia, and a few other places, most of which are shown close to Japan on the map. When there were peaceful relations between these places, there was a high amount of trade, and Japan seemed to flourish. When there was tension and war, trade ceased and Japan fell into isolationism. This explanes how trade and economy can affect the development of something. Comparison between Medieval Europe and Japan There were many similarities between the development of medieval Europe and the development of Japan. While there were different religions in Japan, Christianity was basically the only religion in Europe, and the church was very wealthy and important. Even though religion played a more dominant role in Europe, it still influenced certain Japanese aspects, including art and culture. Economy was a huge part of the success of both places, and they seemed to flourish when there was an increase in trade.The Feudal systems were both based on lords who gave vassals land, and received goods and services in return. The social hierarchy was also very similar. The king would have about the same status and the emperor, as well as the nobles and Shogun and Daimyos, and the knights and Samurai. The main difference is just in the lower class, where peasant came before merchants. War also had a huge impact on growth and development, but in different ways. In Europe, war was mainly over religion and it was usually to their benefit, but Japan fought for power and wealth, and it seemed to slow its growth. Both places made choices and performed actions during this time that would affect their modern future. Just like with anything else, there are many differences between the development of Europe and the development of Japan, but they both come down to two main similarities; Religion and Economy. These two things influenced the culture, warfare, actions, and outcomes of both places, and helped shape them into the Europe and Japan we know today. Conclusion
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