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MIDDLE AGES TO RENAISSANCE

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Daniel Torres

on 19 November 2014

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Transcript of MIDDLE AGES TO RENAISSANCE

FEUDAL ECONOMIC SYSTEM
- AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY

- SELF-SUFFICIENT COMMUNITIES THAT PRODUCES EVERYTHING "IN-HOUSE" (LOCALLY).

- TAX SYSTEM ALLOWS GOVERNMENT TO REGULATE INDIVIDUAL ACCUMULATION OF RICHNESS.
ECONOMICAL PRINCIPLES 500 to 1500 a.C
- The system emerged in an isolated world of inequality that needed land and work in order to survive.

- There was a religious principle of Hierarchies. Every role in the society was predetermined by God. This system supported this idea.

- Taxes kept societies under control while paying for social requisites such as war (fortresses, soldiers and weapons) and tribute to more powerful states.

- The people spent generations living in a self-sufficient, isolated world capable of surviving. Which was the point.

- The people learned different agricultural, metallurgical and engineering techniques. Slowly guilds are created.
SO... WHAT WAS THE SYSTEM FOR?
500 to 1500 a.C
- During the Feudal Age, Feudal Lords had great power.

- Kings sometimes had to rely on them and this meant loss of authority and power.

- Some Feudal Lords tried to kill the King in order to become King themselves.

- Feudal lords ruled Europe controlling small, isolated territories that constantly waged war against each other and against foreign invaders.
FEUDAL LORDS AND THE KING
TIMELINE: Sixth to Seventeenth Century!
511 - Clovis ( a Frankish king) unites
Franks under Christian Rule. Polytheistic
religions are banned.
500 a.C
CHRISTIAN WORLD
MUSLIM WORLD
600 a.C
700 a.C
732 a.C - Charles Martel Stops Muslim Invasions.
622 a.C - Muhammad Unites Arab peoples
under the rule of Islam. Polytheistic religions
are banned.
730 a.C - Muslims expand vastly and
enter the Iberian Peninsula
(Portugal and Spain).
800 a.C - Charlemagne (Charles the Great) is crowned
Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire by the Pope in Rome.
800 a.C
Circa 800 a.C - Algebra books are written.
Muslim Knowledge finds new heights. More and more cultures begin to convert to Islam.
900 a.C
900 a.C - Outside invasions by vikings,
Magyar and Muslims spur growth of Feudalism.
Kings loose power to Feudal Lords and Church.
Circa 1000 a.c - Muslims Scholars, who preserved
Greek medical works an other books, share them with Europeans.
1000 a.C
1093 - The "Holy War" (Crusades) Begin.
An attempt to retrieve the Holy Land from the
Muslim Turks.
1100 a.C
1100 a.C - Muslim literature and culture
flourishes. New trade routes established with the East.
- Muslim Turks continue to expand towards Byzantium.
1200 a.C
1215 a.C - In England King John
approves Magna Carta. The beginning of the Parliamentary system.
1300 a.C
1347 a.C - Bubonic Plague strikes Europe.
1400 a.C
1500 a.C
900 a.C - Turks begin to convert to Islam. Soon they rule over Anatolia, very close to the Byzantine Empire.
1300 a.C - Osman founds Ottoman State.
This is the Birth of the Turkish Ottoman Empire.
1453 a.C - Ottoman Turks capture the city of Constantinople. They rename it Estambul. The Empire continues to weaken until the XXth century when it becomes the country of Turkey after WWI.
1300 a.C - Renaissance begins in Italy.
1455 a.C - Gutenberg Bible is printed.
1534 a.C - Henry VII becomes head of Anglican Church in England. Breaks ties with Rome.
1555 a.C - Peace of Augsburg ends religious wars in Germany.
1522 a.C - Lutherans bring change to Europe.
Reformation brings German and European states into war.
1600 a.C
1492 a.C - Discovery of America by Europeans.
MIDDLE AGES
REFORMATION
ABSOLUTISM
Mercantilism
1700 a.C
1800 a.C
1900 a.C
1618 a.C -Thirty Years' War
1756 a.C - Seven Years' War
1680 a.C - The Glorious Revolution
SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION
ENLIGHTENMENT
FRENCH REVOLUTION
RENAISSANCE
1789 to 1799 a.C -
French Revolution
INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
AMERICAN REVOLUTION
1776 a.C - American Revolution
ROMAN EMPIRE...
POLITICAL
SYSTEM
FEUDALISM
- Form of Government based on landholding (owning land).
- Alliances between lords and vassals.
- Oaths (promises) of loyalty in exchange for land and military service.
-Ranking (hierarchy) of power and authority.
ECONOMIC
SYSTEM
MANORS
- Lord's Estate (property).
- Set of Rights and obligations between serfs and Lords.
- Self-sufficient community producing a variety of goods.
MEDIEVAL
SOCIETY
CHIVALRY
- Displays of courage and valor in combat.
- Devotion to a Feudal lord and a heavenly lord.
- Respect toward women.
CODE OF
BEHAVIOR
BELIEF
SYSTEM
THE CHURCH
- People are unified by a single religion and moral standard.
- The church has power over people's everyday lives.
- The church is involved in political affairs and rules above all.
IN THE EUROPEAN MIDDLE AGES THE CHURCH
HAD THE MORAL CONTROL OF
SOCIETY
THE POPE
CARDINALS
ARCHBISHOP
ARCHBISHOP
ARCHBISHOP
BISHOP
BISHOP
BISHOP
BISHOP
BISHOP
BISHOP
Priest
Priest
Priest
Priest
Priest
Priest
Priest
Priest
Priest
monks and friars...
The Pope is the supreme ruler of the Church on Earth:
- He rules over all the christian world.
Cardinals help the Pope govern the Church:
-The Cardinals are like the Church Government.
They elect the Pope from amongst themselves using a system just like the one use to elect Consuls in Rome.
Archbishops rule over a specific piece of land within the Christian world known as an "Archdiocese".
Bishops rule over a specific piece of land within the archdiocese. This piece of land is known as an "Diocese". It always centers around an important city.
- Monks live in self-sufficient communities known as monasteries practicing the original christian tradition and focusing on religious education.

- Friars live a life of travels within a region. They live off the charity of the people who live in that region and offer religious education to the people of that region.
Popes rules over the
entire christian world...
Archbishops rule
over a large region...
Bishops rule
over a smaller
region...
Priests have
control over a Parish, a small
church and its nearby community.
Monasteries are located
away from cities and are self-sufficient.
INVADERS GIVE POWER
TO FEUDAL LORDS

ROMAN EMPIRE
THE FORMATION
- OF WESTERN EUROPE -

CONCEPTS:
SIMONY
GOTHIC
CRUSADE
RECONQUISTA
INQUISITION
THREE-FIELD SYSTEM
GUILD
BURGHER
VERNACULAR
SCHOLASTICS
MAGNA CARTA
PARLIAMENT
GREAT SCHISM
BUBONIC PLAGUE
HUNDRED YEAR'S WAR
EUROPE IN
THE MIDDLE AGES
CRUSADES
-The First crusade captured Jerusalem but later crusades lost the city and accomplished little.
THE CHURCH
-In order to regain its strength on the people the Church built the great Gothic cathedrals. This helped to prove to the people the great power of the church and of the Christian religion in Europe.
-Nevertheless, many kings rivalled with the power of the church challenging its authority in political matters.
THE BUBONIC PLAGUE
- The bubonic plague, aka the Black Death, killed two thirds of european population and weakened the manorial economy (economy of the manors).
-this plague gave Europeans the idea of death regardless of your good or bad deeds.
FARMING
- Better farming methods - such as the three-field system and the use of horses - made it possible for farmers to grow more food.
- This brought population increase in the Middle Ages.
TRADE AND TOWNS
- People moved from farms into towns.
- Trade expanded and guilds were formed for merchants and artisans.
LEARNING
- Europe's first universities developed in the Middle Ages. Interest in learning grew thanks, in part, to the fact that muslims had kept and protected ancient greek writings. Muslims decided, out of good will, to give Europeans copies of the ancient greek wisdom.
GOVERNMENT
- England and France developed strong central governments in which arose the first waves of democracy in Medieval Europe.
- The parliament and the estates-general are the two ways in which democracy started to control the power of lords and kings.
HUNDRED YEARS' WAR
- The Hundred Years' further weakened feudal power. The long bow changed warfare and doomed knights who could not fight in large battles as efficiently.
BUT EVEN THOUGH THE CHURCH HAD GREAT POWER IT WAS BEGINNING TO LOOSE SOME OF ITS GOOD REPUTATION. WHY?
- PRIESTS WERE GETTING MARRIED... WHICH IS NOR PERMITTED BY THE CHURCH.

- AND SIMONY! SIMONY IS THE SELLING OF POSITIONS IN THE CHURCH WHICH SHOULD ONLY BE OBTAINED THROUGH MERIT.
IN ORDER TO REGAIN ITS REPUTATION THE CHURCH STARTED TO DO SOME THINGS.
- The most important was the "Church Reforms" which made the church resemble a kingdom in its organization like we saw before...
- These reforms started in monasteries. Specially a Monastery in a place of France known as Cluny.
- The reforms lead by the monks of this monastery changed the mentality of the Popes and radically changed the organization of the Church.
- This created a growing wave of
religious fervor
. (Fervor means love and obsession to something.)
CATHEDRALS - CITIES OF GOD
- Another thing the church did was to construct a lot of wonderful cathedrals throughout the most important cities of Europe.

- This brought two great changes to Europe.
First:
It made cities more important, so people started to return to a life in cities.

Second:
It meant that some people, very few, specialized in a form of education that was not related directly to Religion.

This meant the creation of a lot of work for a lot of artisans who started to improve the way they created things.

Better forms of crafting meant better products and, slowly, trade between Europeans started to occur in fairs (ferias).
- GOTHIC CATHEDRALS -
7
8
9
10
ROMANESQUE CHURCHES
- THE CRUSADES -
THE BYZANTINE EMPIRE AND THE MUSLIMS
In another region of the world, the Empire of Byzantium was having a bit of trouble.
The Byzantine Empire was the last remains of the Roman Empire that once ruled over the entire Mediterranean.
This glorious Empire had been getting smaller and smaller as time went by because of constant war against many enemies.
One of the Empire's most feared enemies were the Muslim kingdoms of the Middle East.
EUROPEAN RELIGIOUS FERVOR AND THE DEFENSE OF THE BYZANTINE EMPIRE
The religious fervor of the european christians was put to the test when Pope Urban II decided to encourage all nobles and knights of Europe to unite in the defense of the Byzantine Empire and to regain "holy land".
CAUSES:
- Muslims control Palestine (the Holy Land) and threaten the Byzantine Empire.

- Byzantine emperor calls for help to the European States.

- The Pope wants to reclaim the Holy Land and reunite the Christian world as it once was during the Roman Age and as once Charlemagne had tried to do.

- To do this, the Pope asks the European Knights to fight for christianity defending the Holy Land from the Muslims who are considered unholy.

- Knights feel religious fervor and the desire for adventure, travels, riches and glory.

- Italian cities see this as an oportunity to become rich given that they are closes to the Holy Land.

- Italian cities start to trade with the muslims and the Europeans.
TIMELINE OF EUROPEAN HISTORY
THE POWER OF THE CHURCH IN THE MIDDLE AGES
INTERDICT
: When a Lord or King was Interdicted the Bishops and Priests that lived in the Lord's land were prohibited by the Pope to perform the Sacraments. This meant people would not be able to be baptized, married, the first communion, confirmation or holy oils. This made the people in that land very angry at their Lord.

EXCOMMUNICATION
: Being excommunicated could happen to anyone of they broke the Canon Law. It meant that you were no longer a Christian and would, therefore not go to heaven upon your death. This was used to control the populations given that the fear to go to hell was so great.

CANON LAW
: The law of the Church as interpreted by the Church from the reading of the Bible.
and
EFFECTS
- Byzantine Empire is weakened.

- Pope's power, and therefore Church power, declines.

- Feudal Lords loose power.

- Kings become stronger.

- Religious intolerance grows. People become even more radical.

- Italian cities expand trade and grow very rich.

- Normal people in Italy start to become wealthy. A middle class beigns to rise.

- Muslims win the wars but start to distrust Christians.

- Trade grows between Europe and the Middle East.

- European technologies improve as Crusaders learn from Muslims who were much more advanced.
The church had moral control over the societies of the Middle Ages. This is why this time is also known as "the Age of Faith". The church used various laws to control the population,al of them based on fear. They even came up (invented) the Canon Law by interpreting the Bible.
THE KING
He owned all the land in a Kingdom.
The word kingdom comes from the words king + Dominium.
The King mantained more or less 20% of his land to himself and granted the rest to the Church (and its Clergy) and a group of loyal subjects known as Lords.
CHURCH
The Church organised spiritual rituals in the lands of the King. There was a church in every city, village or Manor.
LORDS
Lords took care of the lands of the King. The kings would give them this land in exchange for loyalty and political services. In order to take care of the lands and the people that lived there, the Lords would give a piece of their land to Vassals.
VASSALS
The vassals were loyal to their Lord. They took care of the lands by providing the Lord with an army made of Knights and trained soldiers.
PEASANTS
Peasants lived in the Lord's land and were organised by the Vassal to work and provide the Lord with taxes. Resources produced from their hard work, mainly agriculture.
SERFS
Serfs did not pay taxes so they were forced to stay in one place and live at the service of their Lord forever. They could not be sold, but were very similar to slaves.
KNIGHTS
The Knights were Vassals that trained in the dmany disciplines of the Knights. They were trained by the Lord's Knights and the church and their duty was to serve their heavenly lord (God), and their worldly lords, their Lord and their King.

They also pledged loyalty to their wife. Knights were special Vassals that had the duty to fight for their Lord as special members of the army.
They commanded the armies of the
Lords and Kings.
TOWN WORKERS
People that worked in towns and cities and recieved compensation for their work in the form of coins (money). They did many things like blacksmithing, carpentry, and many artistic crafts such as painting, sculpting, building etc.
Lords and Vassals became knights if they wanted to.
Some special people, peasants or even serfs could sometimes be chosen by a Lord to become a Vassals if they were very good warriors and held the ideals of the knights. This was very rare.
POPE
EMPEROR
GOD
NATURE
Nature was considered to be at the service of men and their societies. It served only the purpose of giving people things to live. Like a gift from God. There was no consideration on animal life, feelings or the emotions. There was ecological sensibility.
Emperors were kings that ruled over other kings. This happened when one king defeated another king and allowed him to live in exchange of tribute, loyalty and military services.
The Pope was the ruler of the entire Catholic world. He had control over everything the church did in Europe and he was one of the most powerful and rich people of the Middle Ages.
A deity that has power over certain elements of life. He organized society based on rewards for being good and punishments for being bad. The Pope decided which things were good and which were bad based on the ideas of the Bible. Fear was gods ultimate power.
CAUSES OF THE
CRUSADING SPIRIT
The crusades had both economic goals and spiritual motives.
Kings and church saw the crusades as an opportunity to get rid of problematic knights that threatened the peace between kingdoms and church property.

Other knights to go to the crusades were younger sons of lords who could not inherit their father's position because of their eldest brother. these men sought (looked for) land and a position in the Holy land.

Both, knights and commoners (normal people), were driven into the crusading spirit by their religious fervor and the promise of the Pope Urban II that those who died on crusade would go to heaven.
THE CRUSADES:
THE FIRST CRUSADE:
In the year 1097, three armies of knights and people of all classes had gathered outside the city of Constantinople in the Byzantine Empire. Most were French, but there were also, Germans, English, Scottish, Spanish, and Italians.

These knights were not well organized, did not have good supply lines and had no idea of the terrain they were invading.

In the end they managed to win a war against the Muslims and conquered Jerusalem and three other places in the Middle East each ruled by a European Lord.
THE SECOND CRUSADE:
After some years one of the cities conquered by the Europeans, the city of Edessa, was taken by the Muslim Turks. In order to recapture the city, Europeans organized the Second Crusade.

The armies that tried to take Edessa back returned home defeated.

Some years later the city of Jerusalem was taken back by the Muslim leader, Salauhdihn (Saladin). Europeans had lost their power over the Holy City and the Holy Land.

The Second Crusade was a complete disaster for the Europeans but good commercial routes had been created between many European states and also between Europe and the Middle East.
THE THIRD CRUSADE:
Attempting to recover Palestine ONCE MORE! three European monarchs and their armies marched to the Holy Land.

Only one, Richard the Lionhearted, managed to get there and fight the ruler of Jerusalem, Salahudihn.

The two men fought for a long time. After many battles they finally reached an agreement. Jerusalem and the Holy land (Palestine) would continue to be under the control of Muslims, but European Christians could enter the city and pray at its sacred places.

Non-european christians had always had the right to pray in Jerusalem. Muslims never had a problem with that.
THE FOURTH CRUSADE:
The fourth Crusade was a disaster. The crusaders traveled from their home kingdoms in Europe to Italy and Constantinople where they got into trouble with the leaders of these two cities.

Eventually the Crusaders attacked and sacked the city of Constantinople.

The same city they were trying to protect during the First Crusade!

Because of this the Church of the Byzantine Empire (remember that as the original Roman Empire the Byzantines were christians as well) and the Church of Europe, the Roman Catholic Church had a fight.

Eventually the two churches broke up into two, the Roman Catholic in Western Europe and the Orthodox Church in the Byzantine Empire in the East.
THE RECONQUISTA:
Remember the battle of Tours? It was the battle in which Charles Martel, the grand father of Charlemagne, stopped the Muslims from invading all of Europe.

In that time the Muslims took control of Spain.

The Reconquista was a Crusade lead by the Spanish kings to take the entire region of Spain for Christianity. It included driving the moors, Spanish Muslims, out or converting them into Christianity. Jews also had to convert into Christianity.

This was the beginning of the "Holy Inquisition". People suspected of Heresy, the performing of religious rituals that are not Christian, would be condemned to repent or die.

By the year 1492 all moors and jews were driven out of Spain. Those who stayed had to convert to Christianity or die.
TRADE, TOWNS AND
FINANCIAL REVOLUTION
MAIN IDEA: European cities challenged the Feudal system as agriculture, trade, finance and universities developed.
MAIN IDEA: The Catholic Church underwent reform and launched Crusades (religious wars) against Muslims and others.
WHY IT MATTERS: The Crusades resulted in trade and exploration between Christians and Muslims but left a legacy of distrust between them.
WHY IT MATTERS: The changes in the Middle Ages laid the foundations for Modern Europe.
Priests rule over a specific piece of land within the Diocese. This piece of land is known as a "Parish". A Parish is a Church and the community around it.
MAIN IDEA: As the kingdoms of England and France develop into nations, certain democratic traditions evolved.
WHY IT MATTERS: Modern concepts of jury trials, common law, and legal rights developed during this period.
ENGLAND AND
FRANCE DEVELOP
MAIN IDEA: As the kingdoms of England and France develop into nations, certain democratic traditions evolved.
WHY IT MATTERS: Modern concepts of jury trials, common law, and legal rights developed during this period.
A GROWING FOOD SUPPLY:
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