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Transcript of Islam Project
Non-Muslims think of Allah as cruel
God of compassion, love, mercy, and forgivness
singular not plural -Six Articles of Faith- A Muslim must believe in God (Allah), God's Angels, God's Prophets, God's books (the Quran), the day of judgment, and predestination (Some people are fated to be saved while others are not). -Five Pillars of Faith- In addition to the Articles of Faith, a Muslim must abide of the Five Pillars of Islam. By adhering to the five pillars, Muslims strengthen their faith and obedience to Allah’s will. -CUSTOMS- -STYLE OF DRESS- -THE "HALAL" DIET- -TABLE ETIQUETTE- -GREETINGS- -CLEANLINESS- -ISLAM IN THE WORLD- Islam is practiced all around the world in all countries, numbering around 2.1 billion adherents. The top ten countries with significant Muslim populations are Indonesia, Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, Egypt, Nigeria, Iran, Turkey, Algeria, and Morocco. -CONTRIBUTIONS- -ALGEBRA- -PAPER- -ADVANCES IN INDUSTRY- -GUNPOWDER- -THE RISE OF UNIVERSITY- Algebra owes much to the gifted mathematicians of the Islamic era. Algebra’s name proves the magnitude of the effect the Islamic mathematicians had on the creation of this math. The name is Arabic, al gebr, “a binding together”. Algebra was greatly expanded by Muslim mathematicians. Paper making was one of the earliest skills acquired by the Muslims. During the 8th century CE, high quality paper was being manufactured in Samarqand. Under Islamic rule, Spain was an industrial center. Spain was one of the wealthiest and most thickly populated of the European countries. Muslims were leading in weaving wool, producing silk, pottery, jewelry, leather and perfume industry. In the Middle Ages, world trade was commanded by Muslims, and Baghdad Bukhaara and Samarqand remained centers for world fairs until the 16th century CE. The Arabs learned from the Chinese how to make gunpowder, but they used gunpowder to use in a way the Chinese had never conceived of. They experimented with the idea that the explosive power of gunpowder could be utilized to project a missile from an enclosed chamber. The first effective cannon was made in Egypt sometime in the 12th century. By the middle of the 15th century, the Muslims had improved the cannon that it was employed in the siege and capture of Constantinople. Muslims began to find universities in the ninth century, first in Baghdad and soon in Cairo, Fez, Cordova and other Muslim cities. The El-Azhar University of Cairo boasts of being the oldest existing university in the world. It was founded in the tenth century and has remained from that day the world’s leading Islamic theological center. -CHRISTIAN AND MUSLIM RELATIONS TODAY- -WAR ON TERROR SOLUTION- MAURITANIA WESTERN SAHARA MOROCCO ALGERIA TUNISIA LIBYA EGYPT SUDAN ETHIOPIA DJIBOUTI SOMALIA YEMEN OMAN UAE SAUDI ARABIA JORDAN IRAQ ISRAEL TURKEY CYPRUS SYRIA IRAN RAFHA JUBBAH AFIF HALABAN TABUK AL LIDAM MECCA Islam By: Ana Chua, Jessica Tran,
and Ronni Chadwell INTRODUCTION The Crusades were a series of intermittent wars fought by Christian states in Europe and Muslim states in the Middle East, lasting from 1095-1291. The Christian Crusaders fought various battles in the Middle East to secure and maintain a Christian presence in the holy land of Jerusalem. This war was divided into the Major Crusades comprised of the first four, while the Minor Crusades comprised of the fifth through the ninth. -FIRST CRUSADE(1095-1099)- -SIXTH CRUSADE(1228-1244)- -SEVENTH CRUSADE(1248-1254)- -WAR ON TERROR- MINOR CRUSADE MINOR CRUSADE DAMIETTA JERUSALEM NICEA Islam -UNIQUE THINGS- 1. Shahadaah, The Declaration of Faith
2. Salat, Prayer
3. Zakat, to Purify
4. Sawm, Fasting
5. Hajj, Pilgrimage Reflects universal nature
Way of life
Not named after anything
Mecca largest pilgrimage
Islam encourages generosity
Muslims pray 5 times each day. Men and women must be thoroughly covered
No flashy clothing pray
only eat with right hands Muslims must abstain from pork
Intoxicating drinks are prohibited
Other meats are allowed if animal was killed in most humane manner, animal was alive prior to slaughter, or meat does not contain blood. Strong sense of hygiene,
especially in nose, mouth
and ears; Provides a strong
sense of purification. Assalaam `alaikum
Wa `alaikum Assalaam RASHT FES -CRUSADES- -Second Crusade (1147-1149)- JAFFA -The Third Crusade (1189-1192)- ZARA -The Fourth Crusade (1202-1204)- AYYUBID STATE -The Fifth Crusade (1213-1221)- MINOR CRUSADE -BACKGROUND- -CRUSADES- -SEVENTH CRUSADE- MINIOR CRUSADE -EIGTH CRUSADE- MINOR CRUSADE TUNIS ANTIOCH -NINTH CRUSADE- MINOR CRUSADE AFGHANISTAN US vs Islamic extremists
September 11, 2001
US vs Iraq and Taliban-ruled Afghanistan
President Bush attacks
Osam bin Laden
Qaeda BAGHADAD CAIRO keep open mind
retaining respect and civility towards other cultures and ways create thriving economy
successful education system Founder: Prophet Muhammad
Origin: Saudi Arabia (Middle East)
Date: 7th Century C.E.
Holy Book: Quran Council of Claremont Siege on Damascus Battle of Hattin Battle of Hattin Capturing Damietta Death of King Louis IX in Tunis King Edward I Louis IX during Seventh Crusade Excommunication of Frederick II Sack of Constantinople Chart Muslim Branches Sunnis vs Shiites
-Two significant branches of Islam with very distinct beliefs.
-Leadership: After Muhammad’s death, Sunnis believed that Muhammad’s close friend, Abu Bakr, should be the next leader of Islam. However, Shiites believed that Islam’s rightful leadership belonged to Muhammad’s son-in-law, Ali bin Abu Talib.
-Prevalence: While Sunnis make up 85% of the Muslim population, Iran and Iraq have a Shiite majority in the population.
-Imams - Shiites venerate Imams as infallible saints while Sunnis saw Imams as nothing more as a person who leads congregational worship in mosques. Ramadan
Ramadan is on the ninth month of the Islamic calendar. From dawn until sunset, people refrain from eating food, drinking liquids, smoking, and indulging in sexual activity. Prayer to Allah (Salat) and Recitation of the Quran increases during this month. Ramadan teaches Muslims self-discipline, humility, and the ways of the poor. Ways to Identify Practitioners:
- Muslims have a very modest form of dress, concealing their skin and body. Women wear a rectangular scarf to cover their head (sometimes also their face) known as the “hijab”; Women also wear a robe-like garment called a “burqa”. A “thawb” is a long, loose-fitting robe worn by Muslim men.
- Muslims abstain from eating pork and drinking intoxicating beverages.
- Instead of following the Gregorian Calendar, Muslims have their own calendar that is based on the course of the moon over twelve months. A time adjustment is made after each new moon, eliminating the need for a leap year. In total, the Islamic calendar is ten or eleven days shorter than the Gregorian calendar. Siege on Damascus Battle of Hattin Sack of Constantinople Possible Solution
Stabilizing Muslim Countries
help achieve thriving economy
successful education system