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Family Tree of the Atomic Theory
Transcript of Family Tree of the Atomic Theory
~Alyssa Marin and Ellen Stonner~
George Johnstone Stoney (1826-1911)
G.J. Stoney's main contribution to the atomic theory was his calculation and conception of the particle of electricity, which he called the "electron". He calculated the electron's magnitude using the kinetic theory of gases and the electrolysis of water.
Ernest Rutherford (1871-1937)
Ernest Rutherford described the atom as "having a central positive nucleus" with negative electrons orbiting it, based on his famous gold foil experiment. This same experiment also led him to believe that the atom was mostly comprised of empty space.
Erwin Schrodinger (1887-1961)
JJ Thomson (1856-1940)
JJ Thomson formulated the "plum-pudding" atomic model after a series of experiments, using the cathode ray tube, with the aim of studying the nature of electric discharge in a high-vacuum state. The deflection of the rays from the negatively charged plates made him realize the existence of particles much smaller than the atom. He also began work on discovering the nature of positively charged particles. His work on this later subject led to the development of the mass spectograph.
James Chadwick (1891-1974)
Niels Bohr (1885-1962)
Robert A. Millikan (1868-1953)
Robert A. Millikan accurately determined the charge of an electron, using the "falling-drop method". He also proved that this charge was constant for all electrons, thereby demonstrating the atomic structure of electricity.
Hantaro Nagaoka (1865-1950)
Albert Einstein (1879-1955)
Werner Heisenburg (1901-1976)
Louis De Broglie (1892-1987)
Werner Heisenberg's contribution to atomic theory suggested that the planetary orbits supposed by Niels Bohr might not actually exist, but was based only on the radiation emitted by the atom. He also claimed that mechanical quantities should be represented by abstract mathematical structures called "matrices".
Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck (1858-1947)
John Dalton (1766-1844)
John Dalton's theory proposed that atoms could be divided into different elemental groups based on their weight differences. It also proposed various basic ideas...
all matter is made of atoms
atoms can't be made or destroyed
all atoms of the same element are identical
different atoms belong to different elements
chemical reactions take place when atoms are rearranged
constituent element atoms form compounds
James Chadwick proved the existence of neutrons, thus paving the way for the atomic bomb and the fission of uranium 235. He was also attached to the Manhattan Project as the Head of the British Mission.
Niels Bohr, by applying quantum theory to Rutherford's atomic structure, assumed that electrons move in stationary orbits, which led to the calculation of possible energy levels for the orbits and the possibility that light emission occurs when electrons move to lower-level orbits.
Erwin Schrodinger built off the Bohr atomic model and came up with a mathematical formula to predict the location of an electron. This is known as the "quantum mechanical model of the atom". It can be portrayed as a nucleus surrounded by an electron cloud.
Louis De Broglie essentially developed what is now known as wave mechanics, which has entirely transformed our knowledge of the physical atom.
Albert Einstein, in the course of his studies, explained Brownian theories about the movement of molecules and several theories and properties of light.
Hantaro Nagaoka is responsible for developing the earliest published quasi-planetary model of the atom.
Max Planck showed that radiation processes were to be considered as "electromagnetic in nature". He also deduced the relationship between the energy and frequency of radiation.