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Knowledge of the Reading Process

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Tammy Powell

on 3 December 2016

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Transcript of Knowledge of the Reading Process

FTCE K-6 Competency 1
Knowledge of the Reading Process
Competency 1
Phonological Awareness
The ability of the reader to recognize the sound of spoken language.
Phonemic Awareness
The idea that words are composed of sounds.
Alphabetic Principle
The realization that written words are composed of patterns of letters that represent the sound. Also called graphophonemic awareness.
Morphology and Syntax
Morphology is the study of word structure. It includes seeing patterns in words like with her and heroine. Syntax refers to the rules or patterns that create phrases or sentences.
Semantics and Pragmatics
Semantics includes both the connotation (implied meaning) and denotation (explicit meaning) of a word when words are arranged in a specific way.

We model semantics when we choose proper phasing and word choices. We can alert students to semantic cues by asking, "Does that sound right to you?" or "Is that how you would write that?"
Decoding and Encoding
Decoding: Signals into messages (Letters to messages/words)
Encoding: Message to symbols (oral to writing or math word problem to equation)
To be a good reader students must begin with the basics. There are elements of literacy that must be mastered before word recognition can take place.
Phonological awareness skills include: rhyming, blending sounds into words, identifying beginning and ending sounds in words, segmenting words into sounds, and recognizing smaller words in larger words.
Examples: Clapping syllables, distinguishing between words and sounds, using oral segmentation with syllables.
The first part of the alphabetic principle is knowing that words are made of letters, and each letter has a specific sound. The second part is the the the correspondence between sounds and letters leads to phonological reading. Students learn letter-sound correspondence, which allows them to sound out words and decode the meaning of text.
"Her took it" verses "She took it"
Both show the correct syntax (word order) but the second shows an additional understanding of grammar.
Pragmatics includes a social context and the writer's intent.
"That is a red light."
Support decoding with focusing on a particular letter or combination of letters.
Include cumulative lists of words that students recognize, then sort these words into categories.
Finally, watch for the words in texts. Students signal when they recognize a word.
Fluency depends on automatic word identification. Students that struggle with word recognition will avoid reading at all costs! Fluency can be improved through practice with high-frequency words, readers theatre, and repeated readings.

Students must develop strong orthographic representations (speaking what is written). Word identification is based on phonics strategies and phonemic awareness.
Check out the Orton-Gillinghan reading program this week. What are the pros and cons of this method?
Automatic recognition of single graphemes (letter or letter blend) is the first step to developing the ability to learn the letter patterns that make up words. Includes four types:
Regular for reading and spelling.
Regular for reading, but not spelling (boat, drain)
Rule based: cane (silent e)
Irregular: two (no rules)
Slow reading = limited comprehension!
This results in students reading LESS which widens the gap between proficient readers and struggling readers. They work harder and retain less then their peers.

Simple calculation of rate is
(correct words read)/(time reading)

General Fluency Guidelines
1st - 2nd grade 30 wpm
Beginning 3rd grade 40 wpm
Mid- third grade 60 wpm
4th grade and up 80 wpm
Intervention techniques: students listen as they read, use fingers or windows (framing) to improve tracking, use materials that they would not be able to read independently.
Prosody is the versification of text
(reading it with a natural rhythm and pace).
Practice this skill by emphasizing different words in a sentence to change its meaning.
Strategies for Increasing Prosody
Prepositional Phrases
2 - 3 word sentences
Developing Fluency
Model expressive reading, use illustrations, consider decodability, and be a word detective.
Consider the level of the text prior to assigning it! Taberski says instructional reading should be at a 92-97% accuracy level and should contain a variety of genres.
ESE and ELL students will also benefit from recorded books, which models versification, accuracy, and prosody.
Word Analysis
Identify morphemes, prefixes, and suffixes for meanings.
Also includes base words (review, view), compound words (cupcake), contractions, and inflectional ending (walk, walking)
Context Clues
The National Reading Panel (2000) has published the following conclusions about reading vocabulary (XAM FTCE Elementary Education 5th edition)
~ Direct instruction of vocabulary is needed for a specific text.
~ Repetition and multiple exposures are needed.
~ Vocabulary must be presented in context-rich material.
~ Vocabulary should be taught though active engagement in a learning task.
~ Computer technology can be an effective tool for teaching vocabulary.
~ Vocabulary can be acquired through incidental learning.
~ Multiple methods of instruction should be incorporated.

Poor readers struggle through individual sounds to make words, reading a word at a time and losing meaning in the process. Fluent readers "chunk" phrases within sentences to find meaning.

Contextual redefinition
is a direct instruction method to teach students to use context clues. First target words are presented out of context, and students guess the meaning. Next the words are presented in a sentence that contains sufficient context clues to decode meaning. Then students brainstorm definitions, without feedback on the accuracy of their answers. The students then develop a group definition for the word. Finally, after discussing their previous and modified answers, they look the word up in a dictionary to verify meaning.
Teaching Comprehension
Question Answering
Question Gathering
Graphic Organizers
Semantic Organizers
Text Structures
Monitoring Comprehension
Textual Meaning
Story Elements
Character, Setting.
Theme, Mood, Tone
Topic or Main Idea?
The topic is the subject, the theme is never explicitly written, and the main idea is the key point in a paragraph or written text. In fables the moral of the story (the theme) is clearly stated, while in myths it often must be inferred.
Instruction: Reciprocal teaching refers to an instructional activity in which students become the teacher in small group reading sessions. Teachers model, then help students learn to guide group discussions using four strategies: summarizing, question generating, clarifying, and predicting.

Two types of sentences: main idea sentence or supporting detail.
Find the topic sentence by switching it to a question and see if the other sentences answer the question. Also, it is usually first, and more general than the other sentences in the paragraph.
In a passage, an introductory statement will call to mind prior knowledge and the summary statement at the end will be a concise presentation of all essential data presented.
Fact and Opinion
Author's Purpose
Tone and Point of View
Inferences and Conclusions
Other Types of Reading Questions
Bloom's HOT Questions
Text Structure
National Reading Panel
Big 5 (2000)
Phonemic Awareness
Questions for Teachers
Do they use text structures to gather information?
Do they have a concept of print?
Do they predict prior to reading?
Do they question and summarize?
Written Language
Gestures, strings of poorly joined individual words
Metalinguistic Abilities
Word Consciousness
Language and Conventions of Print
Functions of Print
Strategies for Emergent Literacy
Conspicuous Strategies
Mediated Scaffolding
Strategies Integration
Primed Background Knowledge

Onset/Rime: The onset the the opening consonant, and the rime is the ending.
In cat, c is the onset and -at is the rime.
Developmental Stages of Writing
Drawing, Dictating, & Writing
The Writing Process
Writing can be narrative explanatory/expository, persuasive/argumentative

You must consider the appropriate mode of writing: purpose/audience/occasion

Writing conventions:
Spelling, punctuation, capitalization, word usage,
temporal words, figurative language (simile, metaphor, personification, onomatopoeia, hyperbole, alliteration, parallelism) , precise language

Student response to text:
think-pair-share, reading response journals, evidence-based discussion

New writing structure includes a hook, bridge, and TAG with the central idea.
Central idea restated in the conclusion.
The history of the word.
Palomino, rodeo, corral
Narrative Writing
Opinion and Expository Writing
Expository writing is informational, and can be biased or unbiased. Opinion writing requires that the author takes a side, and supports any claims with evidence and elaboration.
Reading Specific Informal Assessments
Letter/sound recognition

Familiarity with the letters of the alphabet.
Instruction should be geared towards unknown letters and their sounds. Students should be able to recognize the letters in both uppercase and lowercase forms.
• Can you tell me what letter this is?
• Can you tell me what sound it makes?
Concept of Print Awareness

• That print has meaning and can be used for different purposes
• There is a relationship between print and speech and a difference between letters and words and letters and sentences
• Words are separated by spaces and there are (punctuation) marks that signal the end of a sentence
•Books have parts such as a front and back cover, title page, and spine and stories have a beginning, middle, and end.
• Print has directionality and text is read from left to right and from top to bottom.

Taught through modeling, assessed through observation and interview

Phonological Awareness
• Recognizing a word in a sentence shows the ability to segment a sentence
• Recognizing a rhyme shows the ability to identify words that have the same ending sounds
• Recognizing a syllable shows the ability to separate or blend words the way that they are pronounced
• Understanding onset-rime shows the ability to blend the first sound in the word (onset) and the rest of the word (rime)

Assessed through Interview
• Word: How many words are in this sentence? "I am happy." (Correct response: 3)
• Rhyme: Do these words rhyme? big, fig (Correct response: Yes) What about key, tree? (Correct response: Yes)
• Syllable blending: I am going to say a word in parts. Listen: o...pen What word did I say? (Correct response: open)
• Syllable segmentation: Can you tell me the two word parts in open? (Correct response: o...pen)
• Syllable deletion: Say open without the -pen. (Correct response: o)
• Onset-rime: What word do these sounds make? /s/ – /ee/ (Correct response: see) How about /h/ – /op/? (Correct response: hop)

Phonemic Awareness
• Phoneme matching is the ability to identify words that begin with the same sound.
• Phoneme isolation is the ability to isolate a single sound from within a word.
• Phoneme blending is the ability to blend individual sounds into a word.
• Phoneme segmentation is the ability to break a word into individual sounds.
• Phoneme manipulation is the ability to modify, change, or move the individual sounds in a word.

(Remember, when a letter appears between slash marks, say the letter sound, and not the letter name.)
• Phoneme matching: Which words sound alike? man, sat, sip (Correct response: sat, sip)
• Phoneme isolation – initial (first) sound: What's the first sound in sat? (Correct response: /s/)
• Phoneme isolation – final (last) sound: What's the last sound in sat? (Correct response: /t/)
• Phoneme isolation – medial (middle) sound: What's the middle sound in sat? (Correct response: /a/)
• Phoneme blending: What word do these sounds make? /h/ – /o/ – /t/ (Correct response: hot)
• Phoneme segmentation: What sounds do you hear in hot? (Correct response: /h/ – /o/ – /t/)
• Phoneme manipulation – initial (first) sound: Say mat without the /m/ sound. (Correct response: at)
• Phoneme manipulation – final (last) sound: Say mat without the /t/ sound. (Correct response: ma)
• Phoneme manipulation – substitution: Say pig. (Correct response: pig) Now change the /p/ in pig to /f/. (Correct response: fig)

Informal (qualitative) reading inventory
Measures grade level reading, fluency, comprehension, vocabulary and oral reading accuracy.

Choose a grade level passage for the student to read. As the student is reading complete the oral reading accuracy and reading fluency assessments. After the student finishes the passage, check for understanding through explicit and implicit questions. Also, ask open-ended questions about the vocabulary found in the passage.

The informal reading inventory is an on-going assessment, and should be completed several times throughout the child's schooling. In kindergarten, perform the informal reading inventory twice per year, at mid-year and at the end of school. In first and second grades, it should be done three times, at the beginning of the school year, at mid-year, and at the end of the year. If a child is struggling, the inventory should be done more often in order to have an accurate picture of the child's progress.

Running Record
A method of assessing reading that can be done quickly and frequently.
It is an individually conducted formative assessment, which is ongoing and curriculum based. It provides a graphic representation of a student's oral reading, identifying patterns of effective and ineffective strategy use. It is similar to a miscue analysis. Through a running record, teachers can obtain:
• Information about a student's use of reading strategies
• Information about a student's self-monitoring
• An accuracy rate
• An error rate
• A self-correction rate
Running records can be used to:
• Document reading progress over time
• Help teachers decide what students need to learn
• Match students to appropriate books
Running records are different from informal reading inventories in that running records do not use a specified text.
Teachers don't need to photocopy reading passages before students are assessed. This makes the running record not only a little more spontaneous but also a little more challenging.
Miscue Analysis
An analytical procedure for assessing student’s reading comprehension based on samples of oral reading. It is figuring out why a student might substitute one word for another, skip a word, or even pause in their reading. Teachers decide if and how to intervene. Interventions are based on whether they think the student’s miscue is significant to the whole meaning of the reading at hand.
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