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Knowledge of the Reading Process

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Tammy Powell

on 29 September 2017

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Transcript of Knowledge of the Reading Process

FTCE K-6 Subtest 1- Language Arts and Reading
Knowledge of the Reading Process
Competency 1 & 3
Phonological Awareness
The ability of the reader to recognize the sound of spoken language.
Phonemic Awareness
The idea that words are composed of sounds.
Alphabetic Principle
The realization that written words are composed of patterns of letters that represent the sound. Also called graphophonemic awareness.
Morphology and Syntax
Morphology is the study of word structure. It includes seeing patterns in words like with her and heroine. Syntax refers to the rules or patterns that create phrases or sentences.
Semantics and Pragmatics
Semantics includes both the connotation (implied meaning) and denotation (explicit meaning) of a word when words are arranged in a specific way.

We model semantics when we choose proper phasing and word choices. We can alert students to semantic cues by asking, "Does that sound right to you?" or "Is that how you would write that?"
Decoding and Encoding
Decoding: Signals into messages (Letters to messages/words)
Encoding: Message to symbols (oral to writing or math word problem to equation)
Phonological awareness skills include: rhyming, blending sounds into words, identifying beginning and ending sounds in words, segmenting words into sounds, and recognizing smaller words in larger words.
Examples: Clapping syllables, distinguishing between words and sounds, using oral segmentation with syllables.
The first part of the alphabetic principle is knowing that words are made of letters, and each letter has a specific sound. The second part is the the the correspondence between sounds and letters leads to phonological reading. Students learn letter-sound correspondence, which allows them to sound out words and decode the meaning of text.
"Her took it" verses "She took it"
Both show the correct syntax (word order) but the second shows an additional understanding of grammar.
Pragmatics includes a social context and the writer's intent.
"That is a red light."
Support decoding with focusing on a particular letter or combination of letters.
Include cumulative lists of words that students recognize, then sort these words into categories.
Finally, watch for the words in texts. Students signal when they recognize a word.
Automaticity
Fluency depends on automatic word identification. Students that struggle with word recognition will avoid reading at all costs! Fluency can be improved through practice with high-frequency words, readers theatre, and repeated readings.

Students must develop strong orthographic representations (speaking what is written). Word identification is based on phonics strategies and phonemic awareness.
Check out the Orton-Gillinghan reading program this week. What are the pros and cons of this method?
http://athome.readinghorizons.com/research/orton-gillingham.aspx
Automatic recognition of single graphemes (letter or letter blends) is the first step to developing the ability to learn the letter patterns that make up words. Includes four types of spelling rules:
Regular for reading and spelling.
Regular for reading, but not spelling (boat, drain)
Rule based: cane (silent e)
Irregular: two (no rules)
Rate
Slow reading = limited comprehension!
This results in students reading LESS which widens the gap between proficient readers and struggling readers. They work harder and retain less then their peers.

Simple calculation of rate is
(correct words read)/(time reading). The guidelines below are based on averages from several different programs, and should not be memorized as fixed rages.

General Fluency Guidelines
1st - 2nd grade 30 wpm
Beginning 3rd grade 40 wpm
Mid- third grade 60 wpm
4th grade and up 80 wpm
Intervention techniques:
students listen as they read (audiobooks), use fingers or windows (framing) to improve tracking, use materials that they would not be able to read independently with teacher support. Multiple readings of independent level texts are recommended to build fluency.
Prosody
Prosody is the versification of text
(reading it with a natural rhythm and pace).
Practice this skill by emphasizing different words in a sentence to change its meaning.
Strategies for Increasing Prosody
Prepositional Phrases
2 - 3 word sentences
Chunking
Slashes
Developing Fluency
Model expressive reading, use illustrations, consider decodability, and be a word detective.
Consider the level of the text prior to assigning it! Taberski says instructional reading should be at a 92-97% accuracy level and should contain a variety of genres.
ESE and ELL students will also benefit from recorded books, which models versification, accuracy, and prosody.
Word Analysis
Identify morphemes, prefixes, and suffixes for meanings.
Also includes base words (review, view), compound words (cupcake), contractions, and inflectional ending (walk, walking)
Context Clues
The National Reading Panel (2000) has published the following conclusions about reading vocabulary (XAM FTCE Elementary Education 5th edition)
~ Direct instruction of vocabulary is needed for a specific text.
~ Repetition and multiple exposures are needed.
~ Vocabulary must be presented in context-rich material.
~ Vocabulary should be taught though active engagement in a learning task.
~ Computer technology can be an effective tool for teaching vocabulary.
~ Vocabulary can be acquired through incidental learning.
~ Multiple methods of instruction should be incorporated.

Poor readers struggle through individual sounds to make words, reading a word at a time and losing meaning in the process. Fluent readers "chunk" phrases within sentences to find meaning.

Contextual redefinition
is a direct instruction method to teach students to use context clues. First target words are presented out of context, and students guess the meaning. Next the words are presented in a sentence that contains sufficient context clues to decode meaning. Then students brainstorm definitions, without feedback on the accuracy of their answers. The students then develop a group definition for the word. Finally, after discussing their previous and modified answers, they look the word up in a dictionary to verify meaning.
Teaching Comprehension
Summarizing
Question Answering
Question Gathering
Graphic Organizers
Semantic Organizers
Text Structures
Monitoring Comprehension
Discussion
Textual Meaning
Plot
Story Elements
Character, Setting.
Theme, Mood, Tone
Topic or Main Idea?
The topic is the subject, the theme is never explicitly written, and the main idea is the key point in a paragraph or written text. In fables the moral of the story (the theme) is clearly stated, while in myths it often must be inferred.
Instruction: Reciprocal teaching refers to an instructional activity in which students become the teacher in small group reading sessions. Teachers model, then help students learn to guide group discussions using four strategies: summarizing, question generating, clarifying, and predicting.

Paragraphs
Two types of sentences: main idea sentence or supporting detail.
Find the topic sentence by switching it to a question and see if the other sentences answer the question. Also, it is usually first, and more general than the other sentences in the paragraph.
In a passage, an introductory statement will call to mind prior knowledge and the summary statement at the end will be a concise presentation of all essential data presented.
Fact and Opinion
Author's Purpose
Tone and Point of View
Inferences and Conclusions
Other Types of Reading Questions
Bloom's HOT Questions
Text Structure
Questions for Teachers
Do they use text structures to gather information?
Do they have a concept of print?
Do they predict prior to reading?
Do they question and summarize?
Written Language
Protolinguistic:
Gestures, strings of poorly joined individual words
Transition
Language
Metalinguistic Abilities
Word Consciousness
Language and Conventions of Print
Functions of Print
Fluency
Strategies for Emergent Literacy
Conspicuous Strategies
Mediated Scaffolding
Strategy Integration
Primed Background Knowledge
Preteach Vocab with Realia
Onset/Rime: The onset the the opening consonant, and the rime is the ending.
In cat, c is the onset and -at is the rime.
Developmental Stages of Writing
Drawing, Dictating, & Writing
The Writing Process
Writing can be narrative explanatory/expository, persuasive/argumentative

You must consider the appropriate mode of writing: purpose/audience/occasion

Writing conventions:
Spelling, punctuation, capitalization, word usage,
temporal words, figurative language (simile, metaphor, personification, onomatopoeia, hyperbole, alliteration, parallelism) , precise language
Student response to text:
think-pair-share, reading response journals, evidence-based discussion

New writing structure includes a hook, bridge, and TAG with the central idea.
Central idea restated in the conclusion.
http://www.qualitylearning.net/programs/demo/la/resources/5stagesoflanguage.htm
Etymology:
The history of the word.
Palomino, rodeo, corral
Narrative Writing
Opinion and Expository Writing
Expository writing is informational, and can be biased or unbiased. Opinion writing requires that the author takes a side, and supports any claims with evidence and elaboration.
Reading Specific Informal Assessments
Letter/sound recognition

Familiarity with the letters of the alphabet.
Instruction should be geared towards unknown letters and their sounds. Students should be able to recognize the letters in both uppercase and lowercase forms.
• Can you tell me what letter this is?
• Can you tell me what sound it makes?
Concept of Print Awareness

• That print has meaning and can be used for different purposes
• There is a relationship between print and speech and a difference between letters and words and letters and sentences
• Words are separated by spaces and there are (punctuation) marks that signal the end of a sentence
•Books have parts such as a front and back cover, title page, and spine and stories have a beginning, middle, and end.
• Print has directionality and text is read from left to right and from top to bottom.

Taught through modeling, assessed through observation and interview

Phonological Awareness
• Recognizing a word in a sentence shows the ability to segment a sentence
• Recognizing a rhyme shows the ability to identify words that have the same ending sounds
• Recognizing a syllable shows the ability to separate or blend words the way that they are pronounced
• Understanding onset-rime shows the ability to blend the first sound in the word (onset) and the rest of the word (rime)

Assessed through Interview
• Word: How many words are in this sentence? "I am happy." (Correct response: 3)
• Rhyme: Do these words rhyme? big, fig (Correct response: Yes) What about key, tree? (Correct response: Yes)
• Syllable blending: I am going to say a word in parts. Listen: o...pen What word did I say? (Correct response: open)
• Syllable segmentation: Can you tell me the two word parts in open? (Correct response: o...pen)
• Syllable deletion: Say open without the -pen. (Correct response: o)
• Onset-rime: What word do these sounds make? /s/ – /ee/ (Correct response: see) How about /h/ – /op/? (Correct response: hop)


Phonemic Awareness
• Phoneme matching is the ability to identify words that begin with the same sound.
• Phoneme isolation is the ability to isolate a single sound from within a word.
• Phoneme blending is the ability to blend individual sounds into a word.
• Phoneme segmentation is the ability to break a word into individual sounds.
• Phoneme manipulation is the ability to modify, change, or move the individual sounds in a word.

(Remember, when a letter appears between slash marks, say the letter sound, and not the letter name.)
• Phoneme matching: Which words sound alike? man, sat, sip (Correct response: sat, sip)
• Phoneme isolation – initial (first) sound: What's the first sound in sat? (Correct response: /s/)
• Phoneme isolation – final (last) sound: What's the last sound in sat? (Correct response: /t/)
• Phoneme isolation – medial (middle) sound: What's the middle sound in sat? (Correct response: /a/)
• Phoneme blending: What word do these sounds make? /h/ – /o/ – /t/ (Correct response: hot)
• Phoneme segmentation: What sounds do you hear in hot? (Correct response: /h/ – /o/ – /t/)
• Phoneme manipulation – initial (first) sound: Say mat without the /m/ sound. (Correct response: at)
• Phoneme manipulation – final (last) sound: Say mat without the /t/ sound. (Correct response: ma)
• Phoneme manipulation – substitution: Say pig. (Correct response: pig) Now change the /p/ in pig to /f/. (Correct response: fig)


Informal (qualitative) reading inventory
Measures grade level reading, fluency, comprehension, vocabulary and oral reading accuracy.

Choose a grade level passage for the student to read. As the student is reading complete the oral reading accuracy and reading fluency assessments. After the student finishes the passage, check for understanding through explicit and implicit questions. Also, ask open-ended questions about the vocabulary found in the passage.

The informal reading inventory is an on-going assessment, and should be completed several times throughout the child's schooling. In kindergarten, perform the informal reading inventory twice per year, at mid-year and at the end of school. In first and second grades, it should be done three times, at the beginning of the school year, at mid-year, and at the end of the year. If a child is struggling, the inventory should be done more often in order to have an accurate picture of the child's progress.

Running Record
A method of assessing reading that can be done quickly and frequently.
It is an individually conducted formative assessment, which is ongoing and curriculum based. It provides a graphic representation of a student's oral reading, identifying patterns of effective and ineffective strategy use. It is similar to a miscue analysis. Through a running record, teachers can obtain:
• Information about a student's use of reading strategies
• Information about a student's self-monitoring
• An accuracy rate
• An error rate
• A self-correction rate
Running records can be used to:
• Document reading progress over time
• Help teachers decide what students need to learn
• Match students to appropriate books
Running records are different from informal reading inventories in that running records do not use a specified text.
Teachers don't need to photocopy reading passages before students are assessed. This makes the running record not only a little more spontaneous but also a little more challenging.
Miscue Analysis
An analytical procedure for assessing student’s reading comprehension based on samples of oral reading. It is figuring out why a student might substitute one word for another, skip a word, or even pause in their reading. Teachers decide if and how to intervene. Interventions are based on whether they think the student’s miscue is significant to the whole meaning of the reading at hand.

The word "basal" comes from the word basic. McGuffy wrote the first basal readers in the 19th century and they focused on developing phonemic awareness and decoding skills.
Reading Rockets is a great source for strategies you can use DAILY in your classrooms: http://www.readingrockets.org/article/seven-strategies-teach-students-text-comprehension
Comprehension is the last "load bearing wall" in our reading house!
Cooperative Learning Strategies
for Reading Instruction
The Kagan Big 5:
http://www.kaganonline.com/free_articles/research_and_rationale/330/The-Essential-5-A-Starting-Point-for-Kagan-Cooperative-Learning
Jigsaw:
1. Create “home” groups that are diverse in terms of gender, ethnicity, race, and ability. Group sizes should be based on your number of reading sections. If you have four reading selections, make sure that your groups have at least four members.
2. Have the group members count off so that each group member has a number. If there are four selections and five group members, the group would have two number ones.
3. Regroup the students so all of the ones are together, the twos are together, and so forth. Each “expert” group is given a selection of text to analyze and guiding questions used to support their analysis.
4. After all groups have analyzed their texts, answered their guiding questions, and prepared a summary of key details, students return to their home groups as “experts” on their section of the text.
5. Home group members present their content to each other, and each student gets to fill the role of teacher.
6. Note: During this process the teacher acts as a facilitator/monitor, clarifying instructions and answering questions when needed. Proximity control is essential.

Reciprocal Teaching:
1. Students become the teachers in small group reading sessions.
2. Teachers model, then guide the students through four reading strategies: summarizing, question generating, clarifying, and predicting.
3. To practice the strategy before using it independently, the teacher can put the students into groups of four and assign a summarizer, questioner, clarifier, and predictor.
4. Once students understand the process, they take turns assuming the roles of the teacher in their small groups, and lead a discussion about the text that addresses these four areas.
5. This student-centered instructional practice supports metacognition.

Knowledge of Language and the Writing Process
1 Identify and evaluate the developmental stages of writing (e.g., drawing, dictating, writing).
2 Differentiate stages of the writing process (i.e., prewriting, drafting, revising, editing, publishing).
3 Distinguish among the modes of writing (e.g., narrative, informative/explanatory, argument).
4 Select the appropriate mode of writing for a variety of occasions, purposes, and audiences.
5 Identify and apply instructional methods for teaching writing conventions (e.g., spelling, punctuation, capitalization, syntax, word usage).
6 Apply instructional methods for teaching writer’s craft across genres (e.g., precise language, figurative language, linking words, temporal words, dialogue, sentence variety).

Stages of Writing Development
Prewriting
: Brainstorm, identify your purpose, topic, and audience.
Drafting:
Write first draft, focusing on content, not grammar or spelling.
Revising:
Determine if your content is clear, if you have kept your audience in mind, if your word choices are vivid.
Editing:
Look for spelling and grammar issues, do solo and peer editing, make final corrections.
Publishing:
Submit, read aloud, or display your work
Note: the teacher should NOT edit student work for grammar or syntax during the drafting and revising stage. Student/teacher prewriting conferences should occur prior to drafting.
Teaching Spelling, Grammar, and Syntax
Spelling and Vocabulary:
Learn words that follow similar rules together. Use words in sentences. Create word walls with images so that students have regular exposure to new words. Have students create their own glossary with academic vocabulary.
Grammar and Syntax:
Give students opportunities to write DAILY and include topics that interest them. Provide cloze passages where they can choose tense, do Mad Libs, start with basic sentences, then add adverbs, adjectives, prepositional phrases, etc...
Handwriting
http://www.readingrockets.org/article/teaching-elementary-school-students-be-effective-writers
Teacher demonstrates how to hold a pencil comfortably between the thumb and forefinger, resting on the middle finger. Too tight with too much pressure results in print that is thick and hard to read. Too loose results in letters that are too light to read.
In cursive writing, letter slant is achieved by turning the paper at a slight angle.
Good posture is important.
Teachers model letter writing (print and cursive) and show students the most efficient and legible ways to form each letter.
Handwriting lessons are short and often.
Tracing precedes solo writing.
Handwriting skills should be applied in authentic ways.
Competency 1 29%

1 Identify the content of emergent literacy (e.g., oral language development, phonological awareness, alphabet knowledge, decoding, concepts of print, motivation, text structures, written language development).
2 Identify the processes, skills, and stages of word recognition that lead to effective decoding (e.g., pre-alphabetic, partial-alphabetic, full-alphabetic, graphophonemic, morphemic).
3 Select and apply instructional methods for the development of decoding skills (e.g., continuous blending, chunking).
4 Distinguish among the components of reading fluency (e.g., accuracy, automaticity, rate, prosody).
5 Choose and apply instructional methods for developing reading fluency (e.g., practice with high-frequency words, readers theatre, repeated readings).

6 Identify and differentiate instructional methods and strategies for increasing vocabulary acquisition across the content areas (e.g., word analysis, author’s word choice, context clues, multiple exposures).
7 Identify and evaluate instructional methods and strategies for facilitating students’ reading comprehension (e.g., summarizing, self-monitoring, questioning, use of graphic and semantic organizers, think alouds, recognizing story structure).
8 Identify essential comprehension skills (e.g., main idea, supporting details and facts, author's purpose, point of view, inference, conclusion).
9 Determine appropriate uses of multiple representations of information for a variety of purposes (e.g., charts, tables, graphs, pictures, print and nonprint media).
10 Determine and analyze strategies for developing critical-thinking skills such as analysis, synthesis, and evaluation (e.g., making connections and predictions, questioning, summarizing, question generating).
11Evaluate and select appropriate instructional strategies for teaching a variety of informational and literary text.

Competency 3 16%
Texts:

Bromley, K. D. (1998). Language Arts: Exploring connections (3rd ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson Allyn & Bacon.
DeVries, B. A. (2008). Literacy assessment and intervention for K–6 classrooms (2nd ed.). Scottsdale, AZ: Holcomb Hathaway Publishers.
Gunning, T. G. (2004). Creating literacy instruction for all children in grades pre-k to four. Boston, MA: Pearson Allyn & Bacon.
Gunning, T. G. (2012). Assessing and correcting: Reading and writing difficulties (5th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon..
Gunning, T. G. (2013). Creating literacy instruction for all students (8th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson. Includes plans and strategies to develop appropriate lesson plans that enable students to achieve higher levels of literacy. Useful for review of competency 5.
Jennings, J. H., Caldwell, J., & Lerner, J. W. (2010). Reading problems: Assessment and teaching strategies (6th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson Allyn & Bacon.
Lever-Duffy, J., & McDonald, J. B. (2008). Teaching and learning with technology (3rd ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.
Morrow, L. M. (2012). Literacy development in the early years: Helping children read and write (7th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.
Norton, D. E. (2004). The effective teaching of language arts (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Merrill Prentice Hall.
Roblyer, M. D., & Doering, A. H. (2010). Integrating educational technology into teaching (5th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.
Spears, D. (2013). Developing critical reading skills (9th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. Designed for intermediate and advanced reading courses.
Strickland, D. S., & Morrow, L. M. (2000). Beginning reading and writing. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.
Tompkins, G. E. (2009). Language arts: Patterns of practice (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Merrill Prentice Hall.

Websites:

Reading Rockets. http://www.readingrockets.org/
The Essential 5: A starting point for cooperative learning. http://www.kaganonline.com/free_articles/research_and_rationale/330/The-Essential-5-A-Starting-Point-for-Kagan-Cooperative-Learning
Multiple Intelligences. http://www.tecweb.org/styles/gardner.html

Primary Text Structures
Cause & Effect:
for this reason
thus
since
in order to
as a result
therefore
consequently
because
due to
for this reason
on account of to
Problem & Solution:
problem
solution
because
cause
since
as a result
in order to
so that



Compare & Contrast
in comparison
by contrast
similarly
but
on the other hand
on the contrary
yet
however
despite
similarly
as opposed to
https://learning.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/12/12/compare-contrast-cause-effect-problem-solution-common-text-types-in-the-times/?_r=0
Don't forget Sequence of Events: first, next, then (temporal words)
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