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Transcript of James Monroe
He was born on April 28, 1758 in Monroe Hall, Virginia.
Unfortunetly died at the age of 73 on July 4, 1831 in New York.
He was in office from March 4,1817-March 4,1825.
His choice of party was Democratic-Republican.
James was also the last founder of America.
The first five presidents are considered to be the Founding Fathers of the United States. Early Life? Jame's family goes way back when the French Huguenots immigrated to the New World.
His father was Spencer Monroe and he was a planter and a carpenter.
His mother was Elizabeth Jones and she took care and educated all of her children at home.
However at the age of 11 Monroe attended Campbelltown Academy.
At the age of 16 James went to the College of Mary and William because his father died that same year.
A few months later James decided to drop out of college and join the Continental Army, which fought in King George's War.
James also fought in the Battle of Lexington and Concord.
From then on James became an avid memeber of the army. Early Life Part 2! After many years serving the army he decided to study law with Thomas Jefferson.
However, Monroe was not even interested in the political world.
He only started to study law because he knew it was the fastest way to become wealthy, raise his social standing, and influence others politically.
From then on he was intrigued in the political world. Personal life! Later on he courted Elizabeth Kortnight Monroe and fell in love.
Soon after they got happily married and had many children.
They had three children named Eliza Monroe,James Spence Monroe, Maria Hester.
He also inherited his father's land and fulfilled his dream of becoming a land owner. John Quincy Adams wrote the Doctrine but was named after
Monroe because he was the president, and it was written in 1832. Monroe Doctrine What is the Doctrine about? President Monroe signed this document on Dec. 2 in 1832 as part of his annual speech to address the House of Representatives.
It stated “as a principle in which the rights an interests of the United States are involved, that the American continents, by the free and independent condition which they have assumed and maintain, are henceforth not to be considered as subjects for future colonization by any European powers...." This basically declared South and North America free and independent and that it wasn’t a subject to European colonization specifically warned Russia. What was the Doctrine about? Cont. It also stated that any colonization was going to be considered as an act of aggression against the U.S.
The Doctrine stated that any type of intervention or presence of the European powers in the region was a direct threat to the safety of the American country.
It separated the Western and Eastern Hemisphere from each other- The Americas and Great Britain. Why was the Monroe Doctrine created John Quincy Adams created this doctrine because he wanted the European countries to leave the Western Hemisphere and he wanted to promote Self-Nationalism.
John Q. Adams did this doctrine because he saw that G.B. would defend their colonies in the Caribbean and Latin America especially when it came to trade.
This doctrine was passed as a specific veiled threat to Spain, which America feared, would take back its lost territories in the South American Continent that had recently declared themselves independent. Why was the Doctrine created Cont. This doctrine was passed as a threat to Spain, who America feared, that would gain control of their territories in South America that had recently declared themselves independent of Spain.
The doctrine was linked to many historical policies and writings like Washington’s Farwell Address and it also included policies as secession from European politics, separation from autocratic governments and monarchies, and non-colonization.
It was a “self-defense” doctrine because the U.S. was concerned about their security and not about Latin America. Reaction to the Doctrine European Countries:
The reaction of this doctrine varied
But most European monarchies were angered by this doctrine.
Those European states that already despised America, hated it even more after the doctrine was passed because it was different from their doctrine and military force.
European countries couldn’t do much because of Great Britain’s navy support. Latin America:
Most Latin American countries didn’t approve of the doctrine, were most of the countries were growing.
But the ones that did accept the doctrine were doubtful of the promises that Monroe was making, they knew that the U.S. was just trying to defend itself and not their friends in the south. Reaction to the Doctrine: Cont. 1. 2 3 4 5 6 7 Doctrine promoted what: Doctrine promoted Nationalism which was an example of Manifest Destiny (idea that the United States should rule North America out of political and economic superiority)
Allowed the U.S. to promote national expansion and seclusion.
It allowed the U.S. to be more “beneficial” than other European countries because they were able to do whatever they wanted.
Doctrine allowed the U.S. to push and “bully” the European countries without fear of being attacked because they were being supported by the strongest navy force.
It gave the U.S. a sense of power and confidence. 8 Effects and Significances: Significance: The US was trying to get the European powers out of the Western hemisphere for good and it years later it was going to be referred to.
The concept of the Monroe Doctrine was first used in 1836 by separating the ties that Texas had with Britain.
It was successful in preventing the Soviet Union from setting up missile bases in Cuba or in any region for that matter.
In 1845 President James Polk said that the U.S. should use the concepts used in the Doctrine.1870 President Grant used the Doctrine and even expanded on it.
It influenced other Presidents. 9 10 Robert Fulton: 1 Who he was: Who he was:
He was born in Pennsylvania, in Lancaster County on 1765.
He had limited education, when he was young, but was very artistic, creative and inventive.
He moved to Philadelphia at the age of 17 to become a painter
But in 1786 he moved to London due to his health.
His interest in engineering and scientific development especially in steam engines became a career. 2 Building up to the Steamboat: In 1797, problems in Europe led Fulton to begin work on weapons against piracy, which including submarines, mines and torpedoes.
In 1800, Fulton built a “diving boat” in France, called the Nautilus.
In 1802 Fulton’s interest in building a steamboat continued.
He asked Robert Livingston to construct a steamboat for the Hudson River while he continued to make prototypes in England for 4 years.
In 1806 he returned to New York.
In August 17, 1807 Fulton’s first steamboat left New York from Albany, making it the 1st steamboat ever.
The Steamboat traveled about 4.5 miles per hour. 3 Significance: Fulton was a very inventive man whom created the first steamboat for the world.
He inspired other develop more efficient boats.
He died on February 24, 1815, in Old Trinity Churchyard, in New York City. 4 The Steamboat James Monroe was the first president to ride
a steamboat. In the next year after 1834, steamboats were the main form of transportation for goods turning little towns on the banks of the Mississippi river into flourishing cities. When the steamboat Monroe was on went by the small settlement in Louisiana, the people were so enchanted with the boat that they named their settlement, Monroe. A french soldier by the name of JuanFilhiol received a grant from Spain and built a settlement in Louisiana. Later on in 1880, the community across the settlement Monroe was named West Monroe because of the railroad's expansion. Monroe ended up becoming a successful agricultural community in the coming years. Fun Facts: In 1820, Monroe received 231 electoral votes out of the possible 235.
Monroe was the descendent of the English King, King Edward III, by hid grandfather, Andrew Monroe.
After her father, Monroe, and husband passed away, Monroe's eldest daughter, Eliza, lived in a Parisian convent.
President Monroe preferred to be addressed as Colonel.
Monroe was against the U.S Constitution.
-The Panic of 1819 was the first major financial crisis in the United States which occurred during the end of the "Era of Good Feelings."
-resulted from a confluence of national and international events
-Occurred during James Monroe’s 2nd year as president The Panic of 1819 Panic of 1819 - US Government borrowed heavily to finance the War of 1812= great debt
-2nd Bank of the U.S. was the nation's federally authorized central bank began issuing large amounts of loans
-Bank did not back up its loans & money w/ Gold or Silver
-William Jones 1st President of the bank from 1816 to 1819, brought out huge loans that kept feeding inflation instead of regulating nations currency
-Congress didn’t want to shut down the bank because 40 members of Congress held personal stock in the bank
-Langdon Cheeves then replaced William Jones and became the 2nd Bank President The Cause -there was great decline in domestic industry
-prisons became overcrowded w/ many debtors
-caused major bank failures
-increase in unemployment
-agriculture & manufacturing were low
-people who purchased land with loans in Louisiana Territory lost land & couldn’t sell their own debts
-Dollar Bill was established & beginning of great use of paper money
- Inflation rose high
-inflation began when the U.S. gov't first started paying off debts from the War of 1812
- the money that was not backed up by Gold and Silver was invaluable and was lost -Widespread homelessness
-no jobs or source of income
-Businesses went bankrupt
-people who could not pay off their debt went to prison --decrease in trade with Europe = decrease manufacturing
-Europe was trying to recover from the Napoleonic Wars and agriculture began rising in Europe which decreased demand for American produce=less jobs for the American people
-England then began to give manufactured goods at below market value to the U.S. -North wanted an increase in tariffs but the South wanted reduced tax tariffs
- the government began reducing taxes and spending
-monetary expansion and restriction of bank credit
-began stricter anti-usery laws (limited handing out large # of loans )
-Monroe wanted limited actions from the Government -Monroe began taking action that would still be appropriate to the Constitution
-He began issuing laws like the:
-Land Act of 1820: eliminated the purchase of public lands in the U.S.
-Relief Act of 1821: permitted people to return land that they could not pay back to the government and in return giving them credit towards their debt
-by 1823 the Panic officially ended Effects on the U.S. Effects Continued Effects on People External Effects Proposed Solutions The End to the Panic Slums of New York Effects on the Regions
-3 major regions of U.S. began having major crisis
-New England majorly suffered from the decline of European trade
-the South suffered a large number of foreclosures
- In the West many people lost land due to the National Banks The Erie Canal
-The Erie Canal is located in the Northeastern part of the U.S.
-It’s about 363 miles long making a water route from the Atlantic Ocean to the Great Lakes
-Runs from Albany New York , on the Hudson River, to Buffalo, New York
-July 4, 1817: was the start of the construction on the Erie Canal in New York and completed on October 26, 1825 1817-1825 -Governor DeWitt Clinton who was the 6th governor of New York greatly pushed the building of the canal & brought it into action
-1817: he got legislature to give $7,000,000 for the construction of the canal
-strongly wanted to connect the east w/ the Midwest through the connection of the main bodies of water
-wanted to have easier navigation & transportation of goods
-he became known as the “Father of the Erie Canal” The Erie Canal Start of the Canal Reasons for Building Construction Design of Canal The Workers Impact Opening of Canal Fun Facts The Erie Canal Now -wanted to improve transportation beyond the Appalachian Mountains
-goal was to link Lake Erie and other Great Lakes to the Atlantic Coast through the Canal
-improve trade & movement of people to bigger cities
-much faster transportation and cheaper form of transportation of people
-improve manufacturing and have more industrious cities -Construction began on the Mohawk River Valley clearing and cutting down trees
- the men hand dug each ditch 4 ft. deep and 40 ft wide
-Erie Canal was 571 ft. higher than the Hudson River & the land from Buffalo to Albany are not leveled so they had to use 83 locks to lift and lower boats through the canal
-men dug with spades, used horses to cart away dirt, and pulleys to move larger objects
-there was huge engineering challenges due to lack of professional engineers at that time -design was too shallow and too narrow for steamboats
-a method for towing was using flat bottomed boats pulled by horses and mules
-the horses and mules walked on a dirt path next to the canal while being tied up to the boat pulling it through ( like a motor)
-the overall structure of the canal was 383 miles long, 40 ft wide & 4 ft. deep -many men working as engineers on the canal were not professionally trained at all
-around 8,000 to 9,000 European immigrants worked on the canal the majority being Irish immigrants but also many British and German workers
-wage for labor: 50 cents per day= $12 a month, paid more than 3 times more than their home countries
-workers received a good amount of food and water but uncomfortable sleeping quarters
-work was very dangerous and difficult -reduced shipping costs for a ton of goods from $100 to $10
-opened the northwest to new markets & people, feeding the market economy
-brought new new technological developments and turned New York City into a major economic center
-linked the east to west, north to the south providing easier travel & more opportunities to migrate
-population began growing in rural cities & major cities began prospering
-provided jobs and saved family farms during the economic depression during that time (Panic of 1819) -After 8 yrs the canal finally opened on Oct. 25, 1825
- there was big celebration in New York City for the Grand Opening of this historical Canal
-Governor DeWitt Clinton poured water from Lake Erie into the Atlantic Ocean as a symbol of the new connection between these places and the beginning of a new time -many people thought the canal was impossible to achieve and mocked Governor DeWitt calling the canal “Clinton’s Ditch”
-Dr. Andrew Barto who was a local scientist in a small local town around the canal made an experiment to make crude cement in a local bar by mixing limestone and sand and leaving it in water overnight, the next morning it was solid = success!:)
-he then opened a company and began selling it
-canal had great impact on many people and authors like:
-Harriet Beecher Stowe
-Samuel Hopkins Adams
-Marquis de Lafayette
-Thomas S. Allen wrote a song in 1905 dedicated to the early days of the canal called “Low Bridge” -the development of the railroad in the 19th century and invention of the automobile in the 20th century ended the era of the canal as it no longer was necessary
-some parts of the canal are preserved & other parts of it have been filled in to build roads and streets
- some parts of canal have been turned into parks and have been used for tourism in different parts of New York State
-now some of the canals are used for leisure time like paddle boating, bike paths, and walking trails along the side of canals "The Wedding of Waters" Political Career! Monroe served in the Virginia House of Delegates.
He was later elected in the Continental Congress in November 1783. He served there for 3 years.
However, later in his political career he became the Senator of the United States, along with joining the "Democratic-Republican" association.
A couple years later James resigned his position as Senator of the US. Instead he became the ambassador for France.
While he was the ambassador of France he liberated many of the American prisoners.
Once he was done liberating the Americans in France he came back to study law in Virginia and became the governor of Virginia four times. His Presidency! After being the governor of Virginia four times he went back to being the Senator of the US!
However on March 4, 1817 James officially became the president of the United States of America.
During his presidency, Monroe, made two tours around the whole country in order for the people to see him and get to know him better.
He was a man who wanted to build national trust all around the country. Presidency Part 2! During Monroe's presidency he struggled with economic problems such as "The Panic of 1819."
In order to fix this economic problem he passed the Cumberland Road bill, which allowed more people to have jobs in order to maintain the roads.
He also helped the indians to progress from the hunting stage to become agriculturalists.
Monroe then wrote a doctrine during his presidency which was then called the Monroe Doctrine.
His presidency years were then over on March 4, 1825.
A couple years later he was diagnosed with tuberculosis and heart failure. Picture Time! :D John Quincy Adams! Who is he?! :o John Quincy Adams was actually the 6th president of the United Stated of American.
He was born on July 11, 1767 in Braintree, Massachusetts Bay.
Unfortunately died on February 23, 1848 in Washington D.C at the age of 80 years old.
His political party were the "Whigs." Early Life! John Quincy Adams was the son of John Adams and Abigail Adams.
As a young boy John would accompany his father in any journey that his father would go.
They traveled to places like Sweden, Denmark, Finland and many other places.
Later in his teen years John attended Harvard college with a Bachelors in Art.
However, soon after John wen to study law in Boston. Personal Life! John later met Louisa Catherine Adams and had 4 children.
Their children were Louisa Adams, George Washington Adams, John Adams, and Charles Francis Adams.
John and Louisa had a very difficult time with the children.
Louisa died shortly after she was born.
George Washington then committed suicide.
Later on John was expelled from Harvard for unknown reasons.
The golden child Charles Francis was very much involved in the political life.
John Quincy Adams and John Adams were the first father and son to be both presidents. Early Political Life! Quincy was recognized by George Washington because he wrote articles about him.
The articles were about how Quincy agreed with George of keeping America out of the French Revolution.
George Washington then appointed Quincy as Minister of Netherlands ang Portugal at the age of 26.
Then James Madison appointed Quincy as the United States Minister of Russia.
Shortly after Quincy became the Secretary of State for James Monroe. Significant things he did as President! He was a very patriotic president who had inherited outstanding political skills that made everyone notice.
Quincy lowered the national debt from $16 million to $5 million.
He encouraged national banking, road making, universities, and formed a national currency.
Adams was also known for making treaties with other nations as well.
For example Denmark, Mexico, the Hanseatic League, the Scandinavian countries, Prussia and Austria. Picture Time! :D The National Road! What is it?! The National Road is mostly known as Cumberland Road.
This was the first road to be built by the Federal government when James Monroe was President.
It was built in 1811 and is still being used till this day.
It was built in order to replace the Braddock Road. Location!? It starts from Cumberland, Maryland all the way to Vandalia, Illinois.
Every year since it has been constructed they have needed to rebuild it and expand it. What does it pass by?! This prehistoric road passes through mountains, valleys, deserts, and wild life. Now and then! :o The Era of Good Feelings What is it? The Era of Good Feelings was a time period in the U.S. that dealt with politics. It was a big change in the political history. There was only a one- party dominance; Democratic- Republican. This era was during the presidency of James Monroe. His election defeated the last of the Federalists candidates. Important People During this era, there were many significant people. Some of them were James Monroe, Robert Fulton, and John Q. Adams. James Monroe was the president. Robert Fulton created the steamboat. Lastly, John Q. Adams was James Monroe's secretary. Significance The Era of Good Feeling took place during 1816- 1819. This era marked the time period of wealth and prosperity of the U.S. This opened doors to many opportunities. Many new innovations and inventions were discovered or created, like the steamboat. Video Work Cited: Virginia. Virginia, n.d. Web. 1 Dec. 2012. <http://xroads.virginia.edu/~Hyper/DETOC/transport/
Inventors. N.p., n.d. Web. 1 Dec. 2012. <http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/
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Wikipedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 1 Dec. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Monroe>.
Wikipedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 1 Dec. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Steamboat>.
U.S History. N.p., n.d. Web. 1 Dec. 2012. <http://www.ushistory.org/us/23a.asp>.
Spark Notes. N.p., n.d. Web. 1 Dec. 2012. <http://www.sparknotes.com/testprep/books/sat2/history/
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Wikipedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 1 Dec. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Panic_of_1819>.